Interestingly, as in the case of Any Parent Migrated households (row 1), when the father out-migrates (rows 2-3), the scores of migrant children improve.
In fact, in the analysis of some migrant households, especially in those in which the father out-migrates, migration is shown to have a statistically significant and positive effect on the performance of migrant children.
In recent years, a group of researchers have raised concerns about the potential negative effects of migration on the educational outcome of the school-aged children that are left behind in rural areas when one or both of their parents out-migrate to cities for work.
1] is observed and D = 0 stands for the student whose did not out-migrate and for whom [Y.
We believe even if there was a selection bias our results are showing that when rural parents out-migrate, the grades of their children do not suffer.
Pull factors--which often directly mirror push factors--are destination country conditions that motivate nurses to out-migrate.
However, many nurses are also unemployed (Adano 2008), which further contributes to nurses' intent to out-migrate (Arudo 2008).
Intent to out-migrate was measured by a destination country's request for verification of credentials submitted to the NCK.
To evaluate the impact of out-migration on Kenya's ability to add new nurses to its national workforce, an inflow to outflow ratio of nurses was calculated, where inputs were measured by newly trained nurses and outputs were measured by nurses applying to out-migrate.
Additionally, nurses that expressed an intention to out-migrate were compared with the rest of the nursing workforce to determine whether nurses intending to out-migrate are distinct from nurses intending to remain in Kenya.
To evaluate how closely intent to out-migrate corresponds with actual out-migration, the number of nurses that ever applied to out-migrate to the United Kingdom was compared with the number of nurses that actually outmigrated to the U.
To understand how sociopolitical factors influence out-migration, trends in the number of nurses intending to out-migrate to the United Kingdom and United States were examined in relationship to changes in each country's nursing recruitment policies.