Seed number data were analyzed using a three-way ANOVA with population, pollination type (hand outcrossed
vs natural), and flower location (bottom, middle, and top of inflorescence) as fixed effects.
Strong early expression of inbreeding depression due to selfing is common in trees species (Hufford and Hamrick 2003, Bower and Aitken 2007), such that predominantly outcrossed
individuals survive to the adult stage, although inbreeding depression may be expressed over many years in trees species, due to their greater longevity (Petit and Hampe 2006).
As compared to outcrossed
controls, this is expressed as significantly fewer larvae released, reduced rates of metamorphic initiation and completion, and decreased survival and fecundity.
This year's successful outcrossed
horses included a dual Classic winner in Cockney Rebel and 2008 Classic contenders New Approach and Raven's Pass.
Generally, our results indicate that current isolation distances in Canada may be inadequate to mitigate outcrossed
derived off-types to acceptable levels in pedigreed annual canarygrass seed production.
2% outcrossing (with a neighbor's RR canola, for example), a crop yielding 25 bulac-1 with 3% shattering losses would deposit 10,000 outcrossed
seeds/ac-1 or 4 outcrossed
seeds per [m.
flowers were selectively retained to fruit, and flowe rs receiving a mixed outcross load were selectively retained over single-outcross flowers in one population.
The most general selective disadvantage of self-fertilization is that it is often accompanied by inbreeding depression ([Delta]), that is the reduction of fitness in self-fertilized progeny relative to outcrossed
The plants with more flowers also produced a smaller percentage of outcrossed
seeds -- those pollinated by a different plant.
Specifically, we investigate three questions: (1) Does self pollination result in fruit and seed set, and if so, is it equivalent to that of outcrossed
On the other hand, progeny produced by selfing are usually inferior to outcrossed
progeny due to inbreeding depression (Darwin 1876, Charlesworth and Charlesworth 1987, Husband and Schemske 1996).
Nonetheless, given a sufficiently high selective advantage for the stabilized derivatives, the process becomes feasible even in outcrossed