Aerial Dispersal of Pollen and Spores" will hold notable importance for: Researchers and practitioners to evaluate the relative importance of nearby and faraway sources of inoculum: Breeders to assess outcrossing
potential and pollen mediated gene flow (PMGF) in the environment; Botanists to evaluate physical characteristics of pollen and spores.
Indeed, the mating system of Galax has not been investigated, though levels of heterozygosity suggest that it is at least partially outcrossing
(Servick et al.
In general, tree species have high levels of genetic diversity within populations and low genetic differentiation among populations, due to the predominance of outcrossing
, extensive pollen and seed flow, long-life, as well as large population sizes (Petit and Hampe 2006).
Upgrading corrosion protection of steel structure: This concerns roof supports, the base points (reinforced concrete), the upper and lower compression ring, the wind bracing and outcrossing
, and any connection lugs or other attachments.
While controversy exists concerning the origin of the "dilute" gene that produces the silver coloration--whether it has always been present in the breed, or is the result of outcrossing
to another breed--it was not our intention to imply silver Labs are not purebred.
The genomes of forage crops have not been as thoroughly studied as those of cereal crops such as rice and maize because of their outcrossing
nature, the larger size of their genomes, and their lower economic value.
An AFLP estimation of the outcrossing
rate of Spondias tuberosa (Anacardiaceae), an endemic species to the Brazilian semiarid region
Gene transfer and outcrossing
are the two major concerns in the area of food safety and food security.
For the analysis of the outputs of the different simulation models and modeling different aspects of the co-existence issue between GM and non-GM crops, we used different machine learning techniques that take into account background knowledge: relational classification trees to learn co-existence rules for GM and conventional crops in a large region (output from GENESYS); equation discovery to model the outcrossing
between two neighboring maize fields (output from MAPOD) and to induce explanatory models of oilseed rape population dynamics from individual-based data (output from IBM-OSR), and linear regression and models trees to validate and compare the results obtained with equation discovery.
The ability to self could convey distinct advantages compared to dependence on a mate for outcrossing
(Maynard Smith, 1971; Charlesworth, 1980; Lively and Lloyd, 1990).
Offspring from outcrossing
share 50-percent of each parent's genes, and some are born males incapable of bearing offspring.
As the Starlink case and Great Britain studies make clear, outcrossing
is a fact of life, it can produce new and dubious species, and we haven't a clue how to contain it all.