And although he gives heed to textually motivated paralanguage
, he gives no account of extra-textual vocal input (e.
Sue and Sue (2008) explained that cultural differences could cause misunderstandings of implicit communication, including proxemics (interpersonal space), kinesics (body movements), paralanguage
(vocal cues) and high-low context communication (degree of reliance on non-verbal cues).
Instead, Sheng is a hybrid language (Bosire, 2006; Githinji, 2007), a paralanguage
(Rinkaya, 2005), an argot, a sociolect, jargon, pidgin, creole (Githiora, 2002) and a private language for young people (Mugane, 2006); a street slang that fits in the Kiswahili structure (Kingei & Kobia, 2007) and thus a slang based on English-Swahili code-switching (Mazrui, 1995:171).
5) See for example, Andrea Ciccarelli's suggestions for "stressing the diachronic development of a language as culture," from paralanguage
and onomatopoeia, and etymology, to proverbs (565-571); Robert J.
The notion is that lovers should be ever ready for sex, "sex" should be effortless, requiring only paralanguage
rather than verbal communication, everyone ought to have great sex, and those who do not attain it are somehow defective.
Because the case is written in dialogue format, students can experientially enact the sales behavior and encode the dialogue with paralanguage
and other non-verbal communication which emphasizes the influence that such encoding can have on communication outcomes.
There is a difference] between language (what is being said) and paralanguage
(how something is said)" (2011:34).
More specifically, fully 55 percent of the emotional impact of a communicator's message is nonverbal, with 38 percent accounted for by paralanguage
and only 7 percent explained by spoken words.
In contrast to these fanciful renderings of place, there is an aggressive naturalism to the dialogue, and McConnell's ear for the paralanguage
of the different characters is evident early on.
Evolution and facial action in reflex, social motive, and paralanguage
of New Brunswick) explores the spatial, temporal, and other non-verbal experiences of book readers and play and movie audiences, and how translators can perceive implicit paralanguage
and kinesics in texts.