When the Inquiring Soul had completed his course of instruction he declared himself the Ahkoond of Swat, fell into the baleful habit of standing on his head, and swore that the mother who bore him was a pragmatic paralogism
Accordingly, seeing that our senses sometimes deceive us, I was willing to suppose that there existed nothing really such as they presented to us; and because some men err in reasoning, and fall into paralogisms
, even on the simplest matters of geometry, I, convinced that I was as open to error as any other, rejected as false all the reasonings I had hitherto taken for demonstrations; and finally, when I considered that the very same thoughts(presentations) which we experience when awake may also be experienced when we are asleep, while there is at that time not one of them true, I supposed that all the objects (presentations) that had ever entered into my mind when awake, had in them no more truth than the illusions of my dreams.
Although they build on results of previous chapters, each can also usefully be read in isolation, as they each contain a history of German rational psychology with respect to the topic of the relevant Paralogism
and then an interpretation of that Paralogism
in light of that history.
A False reasoning B Mathematics of parallels C On military lines who am I?
Had Korzybski introduced general semantics at some point over the last few decades, he no doubt would have dubbed it post-Aristotelian instead, and, indeed, general semantics presages many basic elements of postmodernism, including paralogism
(in the sense of going beyond logic--which was after all first codified by Aristotle--and its established rules and formulas).
Opened to the dizzying possibilities of syntax and syllogism, the pornographic image may be heightened to the point where it metamorphizes into pure paralogism
Here, Kant's rejection of knowledge about a Cartesian soul-substance in the First Paralogism
is particularly engaging, as is the discussion of the antinomies.
As for the critical period, Kant responds to it only in the Fourth Paralogism
of the first edition of the Critique and in the Refutation of Idealism of the second edition.
This essay examines Kant's account in the First Paralogism
of how these two elements combine to produce the doctrine that the soul is a substance.