When the Inquiring Soul had completed his course of instruction he declared himself the Ahkoond of Swat, fell into the baleful habit of standing on his head, and swore that the mother who bore him was a pragmatic paralogism
Accordingly, seeing that our senses sometimes deceive us, I was willing to suppose that there existed nothing really such as they presented to us; and because some men err in reasoning, and fall into paralogisms
, even on the simplest matters of geometry, I, convinced that I was as open to error as any other, rejected as false all the reasonings I had hitherto taken for demonstrations; and finally, when I considered that the very same thoughts(presentations) which we experience when awake may also be experienced when we are asleep, while there is at that time not one of them true, I supposed that all the objects (presentations) that had ever entered into my mind when awake, had in them no more truth than the illusions of my dreams.
Among those who know what it means to command and to obey, no one would dream of claiming that he obeys himself or that he commands himself, a fetishistic formula and a paralogism
dear to the adepts of "autonomy.
A False reasoning B Calculation of parallels C On military lines who am I?
Accordingly, the confusion between apperception and inner sense originates the paralogism
of pure reason concerning the soul.
Here, Hydaspes lays bare the phenomenon of paralogism
, or false inference, as described in Aristotle's Poetics: even if the signs themselves are irrefutably authentic, this authenticity in no logical way assures the truth of the narrative offered to explain the circumstances of their possession; to believe the proof would constitute paralogism
Thus Homer, for Aristotle, is the master of the art of telling lies, and paralogism
is the device by which the lie is passed, the reader being fallaciously induced to infer that if 'p' implies the presence of 'q', the presence of 'q' implies the presence of 'p'.
For him, traditional metaphysics commits the fallacy of paralogism
Had Korzybski introduced general semantics at some point over the last few decades, he no doubt would have dubbed it post-Aristotelian instead, and, indeed, general semantics presages many basic elements of postmodernism, including paralogism
(in the sense of going beyond logic--which was after all first codified by Aristotle--and its established rules and formulas).
1) To show the singularity of Vaz Ferreira's idea of paralogisms
inside the fallacy tradition, due not only to his "psycho-logic" frame of approach, but to his conception of the paralogism
as a process or state of confusion anda source of mistakes that are mental and cognitive rather than discursive.
Secondly, it attempts to show that, unlike the "Refutation of Idealista", the "Fourth Paralogism
" is designed to undermine "transcendental realism", which, according to Kant, is the source of "transcendental illusions" like antinomies and paralogisms
arises from the extension of purely intensive states of consciousness, symbolically representing the quality of multiplicity inhering in our psychic life in terms of a quantitatively discrete series unfolding in space: 'time, conceived under the form of a homogeneous medium', he writes in Time and Free Will, 'is a spurious concept, due to the trespassing of the idea of space upon the field of pure consciousness'.