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A fallacious or illogical argument or conclusion.

[Late Latin paralogismus, from Greek paralogismos, from paralogos, unreasonable : para-, beyond; see para-1 + logos, reason; see leg- in Indo-European roots.]

pa·ral′o·gist n.
pa·ral′o·gis′tic adj.


1. (Logic) logic psychol an argument that is unintentionally invalid. Compare sophism
2. (Psychology) logic psychol an argument that is unintentionally invalid. Compare sophism
3. any invalid argument or conclusion
[C16: via Late Latin from Greek paralogismos, from paralogizesthai to argue fallaciously, from para-1 + -logizesthai, ultimately from logos word]
paˈralogist n
paˌraloˈgistic adj

paralogism, paralogy, paralogia

a method or process of reasoning which contradicts logical rules or formulas, especially the use of a faulty syllogism (the formal fallacy). — paralogist, n. — paralogistic, adj.
See also: Argumentation
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.paralogism - an unintentionally invalid argument
fallacy, false belief - a misconception resulting from incorrect reasoning
References in classic literature ?
Accordingly, seeing that our senses sometimes deceive us, I was willing to suppose that there existed nothing really such as they presented to us; and because some men err in reasoning, and fall into paralogisms, even on the simplest matters of geometry, I, convinced that I was as open to error as any other, rejected as false all the reasonings I had hitherto taken for demonstrations; and finally, when I considered that the very same thoughts(presentations) which we experience when awake may also be experienced when we are asleep, while there is at that time not one of them true, I supposed that all the objects (presentations) that had ever entered into my mind when awake, had in them no more truth than the illusions of my dreams.
When the Inquiring Soul had completed his course of instruction he declared himself the Ahkoond of Swat, fell into the baleful habit of standing on his head, and swore that the mother who bore him was a pragmatic paralogism.
00--Dyck's detailed historical study places Kant's critical philosophy and his treatment of the soul, particularly in the Paralogisms in the Critique of Pure Reason, in the context of eighteenth-century German philosophy.
Kant's opposition is puzzling, given the metaphysical agnosticism he advocates in the Paralogisms.
Their transcendent use, that is, when we apply the categories to them in order to produce them as objects of knowledge, is only productive of paralogisms (soul) and antinomies (world); the only proper application of categories, of course, is in relation to the manifold of sensation.
He examines the idea that intelligence creates existence, an existence that is nothing in itself; as he does so he examines the reality of the thinking subject in terms of paralogisms and transcendental idealism including transcendental self-consciousness.
The figure of Empedocles is permeated with the paralogisms of self-consciousness, which Holderlin outlines in a fragment "Urteil und Sein" in 1795: