A lacustrine influence in the middle and upper units is indicated by the presence of fresh water fish, plant debris, and thin pedogenic
Sections in the region show phases of pedogenic
calcrete development in aeolian sand.
Two composite samples were collected at the top (0-15 cm) and sub-surface (15-30 cm) soil depths each, while the pedogenic
samples were collected at observed horizon depths in each soil pedon dug on both fields.
The indicators included soil morphological attributes such as colour, mottles, pedogenic
segregations, and horizonation; physical attributes such as texture; and chemical attributes such as organic carbon, acid sulfate chemistry, and salinity.
Many of the surfaces exposed by dredging were gleyed, suggesting the pedogenic
removal of Fe from this stratum also decreased Fe concentrations in the dredged bed material compared to the pre-dredge bed material.
Soils on the Deer Flat Terrace Gravel, which underlies some vineyards, contain more than 25% pedogenic
clay and a buried duripan greater than one metre thick.
silification of sedimentary rocks, such as sandstone and mudstone, during the Early Cretaceous has created the abundant, high quality material available at Quarry 35.
Soil sola, however, show evidence of weathering, leaching, and clay eluviation-illuviation, have pedogenic
structure, and exhibit colors attributable to oxidation and/or reduction.
Zone IV differs from Zone III mainly in the decreased slope of deposits and the presence of pedogenic
layers extending across the gully.
Each soil profile was divided into A, B and C horizons, according to the pedogenic
The main pedogenic
process in soils developed on paragneiss and granite under very similar climatic conditions in southeastern Bohemia is the formation of the cambic horizon.
The groundwater and surface waters draining the basin would therefore have contained a high concentration of dissolved calcium carbonate that enhanced the pedogenic
and biological production of carbonate and maintained basic pH conditions in ephemeral and permanent water bodies.