are precision measurement devices that have calibrated, spring-loaded surface indicators to measure firmness and stability.
with standard needle for asphalt test.
Both active and passive traces monitoring with penetrometers
detect leakage and leakage rates.
Mulqueen J, Stafford JV, Tanner DW (1977) Evaluation of penetrometers
for measuring soil strength.
In general, cone penetrometers
have been used to do chemical analysis and were limited to organic materials, according to John Schindler, Austin AI's vice president of R&D.
Comparison of two rind penetrometers
for measurement of stalk strength in maize.
courses, but we should definitely develop the use of penetrometers
These measurements are obtained by pushing penetrometers
into the soil at equally spaced distances across a tillage tool's path.
are widely used for testing soil strength in situ and have been used to study soil compaction.
The films and attached penetrometers
(image quality indicators) are loaded above ground and then lowered into position in the bay.
However, there are doubts about the use of penetrometers
in moist soil.
Soil cone penetrometers
have been used for years to measure soil compaction and to sense root impeding.