It's a debt peonage
system they are never able to extract themselves from," said James Early, a Brazil expert and former director of cultural heritage policy at the Smithsonian Institution and board member of the Institute for Policy Studies.
The complaint contended that US companies Rubicon Resources, and Wales and Co Universe - along with Thai companies Phatthana Seafood and SS Frozen Food - were responsible for peonage
, forced labour, involuntary servitude and human trafficking, as they were 'participants in a joint venture that in violation of US law knowingly profited from the import and sale of shrimp and seafood produced with trafficked labor'.
law also recognizes labor trafficking, defined as 'the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage
, debt bondage, or slavery.
According to Fraga, the plight of debt peonage
and crop liens characteristic of black sharecroppers in the US South did not entrap former slaves in northeastern Brazil to the same extent.
Of course, the Big Box model, like Walmart, has also recruited every householder in his or her SUV into the company's distribution network, and that's going to become a big problem, too, as the beleaguered middle-class finds itself incrementally foreclosed from Happy Motoring and sinking into conditions of overt peonage
Tenders are invited for Service of peonage
for the dependencies of the Provincial Directorate, Administration 17/03 of Figueres and ERU 17/04 of Ripoll of the General Treasury of the Social Security of Girona, for the period from July 1, 2017 to June 30, 2018 .
However, the 'casually authoritative way' in which this Spanish colonial economist refers to the device of debt in Fernando Po's hiring arrangements should give us pause, not only because it skims over the many instances of actual violence within the 'deceptively transparent' relation of peonage
, but because it papers over the history and ethics of resistance on the part of those who demanded the advance (Taussig 1987: 65; Rctsikas 2016).
Slavery transformed into peonage
and provided free labor to White elites with Black dispensable bodies building and laboring in institutions such as Duke University, Georgetown University and others.
remained a staple of the railroad, lumber, and turpentine industries in Florida until about 1950.
Mapuche with rights to reservation lands existed alongside a broad swath of poor mestizo Chileans who, like many Mapuches, constantly petitioned the state for titles as small landowners while surviving through itinerant wage work or peonage
on tree plantations.
14) With knowledge of the lives of Africans, both enslaved and free, in colonial Costa Rica, would these West Indians have been better prepared for the historically sanctioned legalized hostility that faced them in the forms of debt peonage
, abusive labor relations, living segregation, ID carnets and cedulas which, like the Apartheid system of the South, needed to constantly list, contain, number and hold accountable the "potential" of Blackness through policing and divide and conquer?
Buffeted by outsourcing, unemployment, underemployment, consumer and student debt peonage
, underwater mortgages, and the rolling thunder of environmental/climate/resource crisis, the mass of Americans still lead lives of quiet desperation--and it remains mostly quiet because they are diverted from their gnawing anxieties and uncertainties by the toxic glitter of corporate culture, a ceaselessly dripping toxin that mollifies, numbs and stupefies.