The morphological make-up of these participles consists of two types of suffix (-ed and -ing) attached to the verb stem to show perfectivity
and imperfectivity respectively.
First, the perfective forms belonging to what I will refer to as the T-forming class (forming perfective forms with -t or in some cases -d or -t) most certainly go back on a Sanskrit past (passive) participle -ta (Whitney 2002 : 952), representing an early development of a perfectivity
category, contrasting initially with an aspectually unmarked plain verb stem.
Reduplication as a means of expressing perfectivity
(3) has been employed in various Indo-European languages.
Aktionsart is typically distinguished from grammatical aspect that makes the distinction between imperfectivity and perfectivity
of the action that no other element of the sentence can neutralise.
1) can turn into markers of perfectivity
(specifying a "mode of action").
habitual past" in the immediately preceding section, and in any case confuses perfectivity
(which does not necessarily entail past reference) with past tense, as marked by the auxiliary.
The use of the verb does not in these clauses imply past tense, perfectivity
, or becoming, but simply the negation of a NVC.
is also conveyed by resultative verb complements such as the suffix -wan ('finish') (and by reduplication in a construction known as the "tentative," which is not considered here).
On this account, completive status marks perfectivity
and assertive modality; incompletive status marks imperfectivity and assertive modality, and subjunctive status marks perfectivity
and nonassertive modality.
According to Giorgi and Pianesi, the predicate 'cross the street' in the embedded clause must be interpreted as a realized (completed) eventuality, due to the specification of the verb stem for perfectivity
This is not to deny, though, that the chapter contains correct assumptions, such as the view of perfectivity
as referring to topologically closed events, (29) or valuable insights, such as the topological definition of punctuality (pp.
This account is seen as an improvement over the use of perfectivity
since states, by definition, cannot be perfective and estar is used to represent mental and physical states.