Pemphigus vulgaris is one of several disorders that can cause intractable oral or pharyngolaryngeal
Fresh cadaveric neck dissections, direct and indirect pharyngolaryngeal
endoscopies, X-rays, CT and MRI imaging data were all utilised in order to ensure the I-Gel's shape, softness and contours accurately mirror those of the pharyngeal, laryngeal and perilaryngeal framework.
Gonzalez, "Prognostic significance of lymphangiogenesis in pharyngolaryngeal
carcinoma patients," BMC Cancer, vol.
The research assistant used the predetermined definitions of pharyngolaryngeal
complications for the assessment.
One of the anatomical changes pregnancy causes is pharyngolaryngeal
tightening which is worsened by obesity.
Reyt, "The pectoralis myofascial flap in pharyngolaryngeal
surgery after radiotherapy," European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol.
The incidence of pharyngolaryngeal
adverse events after general anaesthesia with laryngeal mask airways can be as high as 45%1.
General anesthesia increases the risk of aspiration, failed intubation due to pharyngolaryngeal
edema, and stroke secondary to the increase in systemic and intracerebral pressures during intubation and extubation.
General anaesthesia increases the risk of hypertension during induction and emergence, loss of airway due to pharyngolaryngeal
oedema, aspiration and transient neonatal depression.
Total laryngectomy is routinely practiced in cases of advanced pharyngolaryngeal
cancer, when partial surgery or an organ preservation protocol (radiochemotherapy) is impossible or likely to fail.
Ketamine produces a dissociative anaesthesia and is a short acting general anaesthetic that may sustain blood pressure and spontaneous respiration, thus making intubation potentially unnecessary as it should not alter pharyngolaryngeal
reflexes significantly (Philips 2004).
Special Considerations: Bitter taste, headache, epistaxis, pharyngolaryngeal
pain, and postnasal drip were adverse events reported in clinical trials that occurred more frequently among those treated with Patanase nasal spray versus those using a vehicle spray.