By 1867, an article in the bulletin of the French Society of Photography broadcast common speculation about the "perfect combination of the stereoscope, phenakistiscope
, and photography, with which it would be possible to produce the extraordinary phenomenon of moving figures, with all the illusion of natural relief' (Tosi 31).
Reminiscent of obsolete optical devices like the Phenakistiscope
, this assemblage of spinning images establishes a situation in which the body is the occasion for, and the frame of, photography's procedures (pictures are literally viewed through monitor-shaped cutouts made in other pictures).
Crary tracks this new perception of vision through scientific interest in the retinal afterimage and post-camera obscura inventions such as the stereoscope, zoetrope, phenakistiscope
, and other technological and cultural phenomena in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries which focused public attention on new visual experiences.