Cette temporalite repetitive renvoie au pouvoir d'attraction des jouets d'optique du XIXe siecle, comme le phenakistiscope
, produit a cette periode charniere du pre-cinema et des images en mouvement.
By 1867, an article in the bulletin of the French Society of Photography broadcast common speculation about the "perfect combination of the stereoscope, phenakistiscope, and photography, with which it would be possible to produce the extraordinary phenomenon of moving figures, with all the illusion of natural relief' (Tosi 31).
The vertical bands in Liquid Time recall video color bars, but they also resonate with the slatted cut-outs of the phenakistiscope and zoetrope, and the physical interaction reimagines the physical operation of those devices.
Tambien llamado fenaquistiscopio--del frances phenakistiscope
, que a su vez toma la palabra griega [TEXTO IRREPRODUCTIBLE EN ASCII], phenakismos, 'engano'--este aparato fue inventado por el fisico belga Joseph-Antoine Ferdinand Plateau para demostrar que una imagen permanece en la retina humana una decima de segundo antes de desaparecer por completo--a este principio se le llama <<persistencia de la retina>>, y es el mismo en que se basa la ilusion de movimiento continuo que nos brinda el cinematografo (1)--.
In his Morale du joujou, first published in 1853, Baudelaire gave a detailed description of the phenakistiscope
, the "scientific toy" that made series of cartoon figures appear as though they were juggling or dancing.
Reminiscent of obsolete optical devices like the Phenakistiscope
, this assemblage of spinning images establishes a situation in which the body is the occasion for, and the frame of, photography's procedures (pictures are literally viewed through monitor-shaped cutouts made in other pictures).
In fact, many devices originally designed for optical experimentation--the phenakistiscope, the zootrope, the stereoscope--began to saturate the market and the popular imagination, not as scientific tools, but rather for entertainment purposes.
The phenakistiscope ("deceptive view"), stroboscope, and zootrope ("wheel of life") all appeared in 1833 and 1834 as marketable commodities that would have been available to the same audience that Kirkland addresses in her fiction (Crary 109-10).
Crary tracks this new perception of vision through scientific interest in the retinal afterimage and post-camera obscura inventions such as the stereoscope, zoetrope, phenakistiscope
, and other technological and cultural phenomena in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries which focused public attention on new visual experiences.