Finally, Abhinavagupta echoes the first Paramarthasara by speaking in the language of metaphor and analogy (see karikas 6, 7, 8, 9, 12-13, 18, 23, 25, 26, 28, 31, 32, 36, 37, 42, 51, 57, 62, 85-86, and 87-88), rather than in the sort of philosophical logic
that characterizes the first two adhikaras of the Isvarapratyabhijnakarikas (IPK), the magnum opus of Abhinava's paramaguru, Utpaladeva.
One of the central notions in philosophical logic
is identity, and Lowe (following Frege) says we need criteria of identity in order to be able to think of particular objects.
First, it is selfstyled as coming from the "European tradition of philosophical logic
," and many of the citations do reflect a different background than similar Anglophone works.
This single event disproved the axiom--brought about through countless observations of white swans--that all swans are white, bringing to light a problem with the philosophical logic
that drives learning and knowledge.
Ibn Sinan's contribution is of a particular interest: it is the first substantial essay, to our knowledge, which deals with this kind of philosophical logic
Handbook of Philosophical Logic
, volume III: Alternatives to Classical Logic of Synthese library; v.
As Robert Boyd has argued, the principles of philosophical logic
can contribute to the logic of students' arguments; similarly, ethical arguments can contribute to the students' writing abilities as well as the development of their own ethics.
Heidegger notes that genuinely philosophical logic
has had only two masters: Aristotle, "the Father of Logic," and Hegel, his "only-begotten and co-equal son.
The concept of logical consequence; an introduction to philosophical logic
Half of the papers concern themselves with philosophical logic
and the philosophy of language, discussing such topics as pragmatic and semiotic prerequisites for predication, intentionality and its language-dependency, features of Indian logic, and mediation between intuitionistic and two-valued logic.
In philosophical logic
, necessity is usually conceived as a sentential operator rather than as a predicate.
Overall, Koethe has provided a cogent discussion of issues central to epistemology and philosophical logic