Rio Grande--a new phlebotomus
fever group virus from south Texas.
11, 12) DDT resistance was reported in Phlebotomus
papatasi (Scopoli) populations in Iran in a field survey conducted during 1985-1988, although the use of DDT had been discontinued since 1969.
papatasi is the most prevalent species among Phlebotomus
genus, and is the only proven vector of ZCL (6-7).
For instance, Phlebotomus
papatasi (Loew, 1845) (Diptera: psychodidae) females synthetize lipase, which was recognized as the main component involved in the accessory glands secretion process in the reproductive tract (Rosetto et al.
Other results showed that exposure to uninfected Phlebotomus
caused resistance to Leishmania major due to an increase in cytokines that related to cellular immunity (Kamhawi 2000).
Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by an intramacrophage protozoa, Leishmania (Order: Kinetoplastidae, Family: Trypanosomatidae, Genus: Leishmania), that is generally transmitted by sandflies, either Phlebotomus
(Old world) or Lutzomyia (New World).
There are two old world genera within the subfamily Phlebotominae: Sergentomyia and phlebotomus
venustus Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 Mansonia Bird, Skin Brown & Pearson, perturbans Mammals 1938 Orthopodomyia Birds Skin Brown & Pearson, signifera 1938 Phlebotomus
Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 shannoni Psorophora Birds, Skin Brown & Pearson, ciliata Mammals 1938 P.
Birds, especially virus (mosquito) crows and jays Leishmaniasis Leishmania Phlebotomus
and Many mammal spp.
Kala azar (visceral leishmaniasis) is a deadly disease caused by parasitic protozoa Leishmanial donovani, transmitted to humans by the bite of infected female sandfly, Phlebotomus
It is transmitted by the bite of the phlebotomus
No Brasil, a transmissão de Leishmania chagasi, principal agente etiológico da LV, dá-se pela picada de fêmeas de insetos dípteros, pertencentes à família Psychodidae, ao gênero Lutzomia (nas Américas) ou Phlebotomus
(no Velho Mundo), cujo principal vetor, no Brasil, é a espécie Lutzomia longipalpis (Rey, 2002).