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In mothers and their children, Bush and colleagues are searching for biological markers of adversity in the telomeres at the ends of chromosomes, the immune system and other physiological stress response systems.
However, the link between thoughts/emotions and the physiological stress response would not be scientifically evidenced for approximately another 25 years.
The morning rise of cortisol (in saliva) as a response to awakening is a well-documented method to assess the physiological stress response by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis for different conditions (12,14) including obesity (7,16).
Behavioural traits are considered to be the first traits affected by domestication (Price, 1999) and are often the precursor to alter the physiological stress response in many fish species (Davis, 2006; Woodward and Strange, 1987).
Several factors can affect condition and physiological stress response in mussels, especially during long-term holding; these include temperature, population density, reproductive effort and food availability [3,4].
They also point out that a reduced physiological stress response may reflect some adaptive evolutionary benefit passed on to offspring to ensure survival in what is expected to be a more stressful environment.
If a true association between job strain and incident cancer existed because the physiological stress response has a role in cancer promotion or progression (for example, via the regulation of the inflammatory pathways), the follow-up periods in our analyses should have been long enough to detect such an association.
Because combinations of stressors are more representative of natural ecosystems, characterizing physiological stress response in the presence of multiple stressors is relevant to understanding stress response physiology (Anderson et al.

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