The pitch accent
in (6a) is different from those presented above.
Shortly, I'll explain the distinction between these two forms of emphasis; for now, well note that even in ordinary language, the so-called sentence stress or pitch accent
changes even when the lexical or word stresses don't.
in mono- and disyllabic utterances, and is a strong argument for the analysis of the contour as one pitch accent
rather than composed of different tunes.
In L2 Estonian with moderate or strong accent, there appeared a straightforward transfer of at least one rising pitch accent
from the intonation system of L1 into L2; the L1 intonation pattern with a high plateau (Russian pattern (a)) was often used instead of the Estonian pattern ending in a plateau (Estonian pattern (a)) in order to signal continuation from the part of the speaker.
The authors conclude that Kohistani Shina has a pitch accent
system, rather than independently varying pitch and stress (p.
However, he is aware that "there is a 'grumbling' overtone when no high pitch accent
precedes whereas there is a 'soothing' overtone when a high pitch accent
does precede the [low-rise] nucleus".
Lexical stress, lexical pitch accent
, and lexical tone
Osada describes the phonological word as at most three syllables delimited by junctures, but he does not mark juncture or give a rule for it except relative to pitch accent
, which is also not marked.
In Saaremaa Estonian, the pitch accent
gesture appears to be shifted to the right resulting in a lower syllable initial pitch, a later upper turning point aligned well after the end of the stressed vowel, and a delayed lower turning point.
For example, in (31) the verb is unaccusative and one pitch accent
on the internal argument is sufficient to render the whole sentence focused.
I identify two additional uses of intonation: the iconic, in which the pitch accent
reflects the meaning of the word, and the metrical, in which a pitch contour is repeated to establish a metrical "tune.
It will be concluded that the rising pitch accent
in the RF-contour does not mark a topic with scope over the assertion, but a contrastive focus within the assertion, which can gain an additional topic interpretation.