Since independence, many African states have been marked by one form of self-inflicted debility or another, manifested in social decay, immiserization of the people, planlessness
, slummization, thieveries of all stripes and hues with dire consequences for development.
In 1940s the general perception and interpretation of the phenomenon is like a "disaster" which hit cities due to planlessness
and imprudence of the government (Senyapili, 1985, 86).
paths can be both planless and planned, and the initial planlessness
Perhaps the strong sense of individual validity, which makes Spain the most democratic country in Europe, sanctions the constant improvisation, and accounts for the confident planlessness
as common in Spanish architecture as in Spanish political thought" (Dos Passos 1922: 59-60).
sticks out in the organisation like a boil on the nose, unleashing crisis and crippling growth, the leader blames the mess on time.
She disliked the place, its noise and planlessness
and "intrigue"--the word is Naipaul's--its day-to-day approach to life, its tendency to measure successes by foreign standards only, the fact that nothing gets done.
This, and the planlessness
that historically typified American urban growth, especially in New York City, permitted Harlem to become the horrible slum it remains today.