Re-establishment of coral populations is highly dependent on settlement of coral planulae
, post-settlement survival, and juvenile coral growth.
Settlement induction of Acropora palmata planulae
by a GLW-amide neuropeptide.
These chemicals serve as signals that activate planulae
settlement by initiating morpho-physiological changes (83).
Whole trophosomes were detached and then accumulated on the shoreline, probably due to a massive settlement of planulae
on an unsuitable substrate.
, shaken from the brooding structures of adult medusae caught in the field, settled and metamorphosed into scyphistomae in the lab and were maintained in culture.
Corals indeed do have such free living, planktonic larvae, called planulae
Corals are either brooders, which release internally fertilized planulae
, or broadcast spawners, which release eggs and sperm (Harrison and Wallace 1990).
1983; Neigel and Avise 1983; Lasker 1984; Wallace 1985; Willis and Ayre 1985; Wulff 1986, 1991; Ayre and Willis 1988; Hunter 1993), "budding" asexual propagules (Walker and Bull 1983; Dahan and Benayahu 1997), the release of asexual planulae
(Black and Johnson 1979; Stoddart 1983a; Ayre and Resing 1986), [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 1 OMITTED] and polyp bailout (Sammarco 1982; Richmond 1985; Kramarskywinter et al.
When these sections were submerged in seawater, we collected the fully developed planulae
that swam free.
alata could explain the patterns we have observed, it seems more likely that genetic metapopulation cohesion is maintained via dispersal through the swimming medusa stage, and perhaps via dispersal of encysted planulae
, which are described here for the first time in Alatina.
2008); rapid colonization of empty substrates as a result of a high investment in sexual reproduction and periodic release of planulae
resistant to limiting resources (Smith 1997, Kramer 2003).
The lighter, more water-soluble fractions of crude oil have sub-lethal toxic effects on corals, adversely affecting their reproduction and causing abortion of immature planulae