Recently we have developed cutting edge abilities to access a plasmid
population (plasmidome) of a given microbial community, and applied them to rumen microbial communities.
coli TOP10 by electroporation of the total plasmid
extracted from YD472.
They were initially looking for diatom DNA sequences that allowed for plasmid
replication but instead identified a yeast plasmid
that replicates in diatoms and functions like an artificial chromosome.
If a special plasmid
composed of the glycoprotein-160 HIV gene, and the two reporter genes Green Fluorescence Protein and Firefly Luciferase, is able to be successfully inserted into human T-cells to create cells that look like HIV, then tests can be performed and data can be collected to analyze the effectiveness of the therapeutic aptamer-small interfering RNA(siRNA) chimera, a new smart-bomb approach, to destroy the HIV cell.
The topics include operator-repressor titration: stable plasmid
maintenance without selectable marker genes, analytical tools in minicircle production, magnetofection of minicircle DNA vectors, the episomal expression of minicircles and conventional plasmids
in mammalian embryos, and the influence of the extracellular matrix in the increased efficiency of minicircles versus plasmids
under gene electrotransfer sub-optimal conditions.
Large-scale production of plasmid
DNA (pDNA) for medical use is however a new field in biopharmacy.
The biggest plasmid
is highly homologous to a previously sequenced plasmid
isolated from a horse and carrying additional multi-drug resistance genes.
RecipharmCobra Biologics, Keele, UK, a international manufacturer of biopharmaceuticals, has been granted European and United States patents for its novel plasmid
However, majority of the known plasmid
curing agents including acridine orange, ethidium bromide and sodium dodecyl sulphate are toxic or mutagenic and hence unsuitable for therapeutic applications.
For example, the Electro Bolt plasmid
allows you to shoot lightning from your hands to electrocute enemies while Insect Swarm gives you the power to send a swarm of bugs to attack enemies.
The ease and reproducibility of plasmid
DNA isolation from bacteria permits numerous labs to conduct molecular biology experiments and greatly accelerates progress in understanding complex biological processes.
Wyeth Holdings Corporation (Madison, NJ) has patented expression of the lipidated form of the peptidoglycan-associated protein (PAL) of gram-negative bacteria achieved through the use of a plasmid
containing a tightly regulated promoter.