As with all the electoral processes in the Chavez era, and despite the fact that in this case the elections were only for mayors and council members, a plebiscitary
logic was present, albeit with less weight than in the presidential elections.
Wilson, the first president to criticize America's Founding, was especially impatient with the separation of powers, which he considered, as Obama does, an affront to his duel grandeur: The president is a plebiscitary
tribune of the entire people, monopolizing true democratic dignity that is denied to mere legislators.
A step toward this goal could be to establish popular referenda by relocating the plebiscitary
initiative from State institutions to citizens.
On the Monday evening, when the first results were known, the spokesman for the Central Committee, Jan Bisztyga, appeared on the television evening news, sitting side by side with Solidarity's Janusz Onyzszkiewicz, and Mr Bisztyga said: 'The elections had a plebiscitary
character and Solidarity won a clear majority.
Or shall we consider the primaries a mere top-down mechanism, in which the 'public' is summoned to give plebiscitary
legitimation to a pre-selected leader, emerging from the struggle between internal elites?
In 1959, conservative political scientist James Burnham, in Congress and the American Tradition, wrote that "the political death of Congress would mean plebiscitary
despotism for the United States in place of constitutional government, and thus the end of political liberty.
We as lawyers have realized with clear concerns that Turkey is moving towards a plebiscitary
He regretted the "abdication of Congress" and predicted that "the political death of Congress would mean plebiscitary
despotism for the United States in place of constitutional government, and thus the end of political liberty" (Burnham 1959, 277, 352).
Constant argues that a modern liberal state needs both forms of liberty, but also emphasises that ancient liberty must evolve: For the modern state, unlike the Greek polis or the Roman Republic, is ill-suited to the direct and plebiscitary
forms of political participation known to the ancient; and yet the fate of individual liberty, as Rousseau also understood, remains inextricably linked with political liberty and with the ideal of self-government.
For this reason, constitutional changes are difficult and are meant to be difficult, typically requiring a combination of super majorities, ratification at both levels of government or even plebiscitary
Despite the unsuccessful experiments with plebiscitary
state constitutions, however, the newly independent nation was thriving.
The united national Romanian state was constituted during an internal revolutionary process through plebiscitary
meetings, within a favourable international context, when the auto determination right became an international right and when the great empires disappeared.