of psychiatric disorders will reinvent DSM.
It was only in 1953 with his hypothesis of antagonistic pleiotropy
(AP) that George C.
But there had been no genes-based evidence to back up this theory, called the hypothesis of antagonistic pleiotropy
This study aimed to determine whether the epidemiological association between alcohol intake and GGT at the population level is necessarily a causal one or may also reflect effects of genetic pleiotropy
(genes influencing multiple traits.
Dudley (1978) found six morphological characters to vary along an elevation gradient in the Melastomataceae in Peru and suggested that pleiotropy
Keeping in mind the pleiotropy
of warfarin, the purpose of this study was to investigate how various doses affected the IL-6 production in patients on warfarin therapy.
From these, the investigators constructed genetic instruments composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and conducted Mendelian randomizations designed to adjust for the SNPs' possible associations with other traits, or pleiotropy
Role of PRRT2 in common paroxysmal neurological disorders: A gene with remarkable pleiotropy
Because of pleiotropy
and multiple genes, specific genetic change can affect a number of phenotypic traits.
Moreover, synthesizing our results in the context of biological networks will provide the opportunity to decipher how epistasis and pleiotropy
impacted adaptive trajectories.
Possible explanations for the maintenance of dark-coated polymorphs include camouflage (Caro, 2014), thermoregulation (Ducharme et al, 1989), and/or pleiotropy
(Ducrest et al, 2008).
It is interesting to consider this finding in light of the emerging consensus that the gene encoding TOR, a pro-growth kinase that is essential for early development, is a key pro-aging gene in adult animals, epitomizing the criteria for the antagonistic pleiotropy
theory of aging proposed by George Williams in 1957 (Williams, 1957; Blagosklonny, 2010).