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However, according to Levine & Clemente (2005) its development differs, as it does not appear as an outpouching from the lateral nasal wall, but rather a constriction of the developing presphenoid recess, followed by secondary pneumatization postnatally.
Pneumatization from the anterior ethmoid sinus can invade adjacent osseous structures and form paranasal sinus cells.
Overall, there is considerable inter- and, in part, intraspecific variation in air sac anatomy and the pneumatization of bones.
Pneumatization of anterior clinoid process was there in 2 (4%) patients; all unilateral.
The mean mastoid pneumatization index was significantly lower in the elderly group (p<0.
Two key problems must be overcome in the posterior area of the maxilla: the pneumatization of the maxillary sinus and the reabsorption of the alveolar bone after extraction.
CT scan of the paranasal sinuses demonstrated extensive-type pneumatization of the right middle turbinate and lamellar-type pneumatization of the left middle turbinate and a left-side septal deviation.
The atrophy of the alveolar ridge crest combined with the pneumatization of the maxillary sinus after tooth loss in the posterior maxillae is a gradually increasing problem in rapidly aging population, often rendering only a few millimeters of bone height available for such implant placement as may be required (1).
Primary septa is thought to arise during maxillary development whereas secondary septa arises from the irregular pneumatization of the sinus floor following tooth loss.
Anatomic limitations often associated with the posterior maxilla are a flat palatal vault, deficient alveolar height, inadequate posterior alveolus, increased pneumatization of the maxillary sinus and close approximation of the sinus to crestal bone.
Radiographic assessment and surgical implications of arcuate eminence pneumatization.
These compensatory changes include ipsilateral calvarial thickening, hyper pneumatization of the ipsilateral paranasal sinuses, and enlargement of mastoid cells.
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