It aims at theory building similar to fiscal federalism (Oates, 1972), polyarchy
(Dahl, 1984), and functionalist approaches to the analysis of multi-level governance (Hooghe and Marks, 2004) and the explanation of its development (Putnam, 1988; Scharpf, 1997).
Therefore, his reflection focuses on the economic and financial institutions for Europe and for the idea of a worldwide society: only on the basis of the principles of solidarity, subsidiarity and polyarchy
any super-national society can be founded.
Dahl defined the polyarchy
as "a kind of regime" "in which power and authority over public matters are distributed among a plurality of organizations and associations that are relatively autonomous in relation to one another and in many cases in relation to the government of the state as well" (Dahl, 1984: 237), a type of regime that has as key characteristic "the continuing responsiveness of the government to the preferences of its citizens, considered as political equals" (Dahl, 1971: 1).
Other scholars like Dahl in his formulation of polyarchy
(1971, 2, 8; 1989, 316-7), and later Bollen and Jackman (1989, 612-8), Coppedge and Reinicke (1990), and Diamond (1996, 53), posit democracy is always a matter of degree with most countries along a continuum between full democracy and complete non-democracy.
A leading player here is Robert Dahl's (15) polyarchy
model, that demonstrates government capacity to continuously respond to citizen demand as an expression of the democratic ideal.
This leads us to a fancy word that every American ought to know: polyarchy
, referring to a society in which there are many independent sources of power (the opposite of monarchy).
prevailed in RCP and this speaks of a sharp and important difference between the two journals.
His concept of polyarchy
has been most celebrated and perhaps successful.
As Robinson (1996) observes, during this period, new political arrangements of polyarchy
came about: as segments of local and foreign dominant groups pushed for tightly managed electoral systems in which political contestation was narrowly confined to competing elites.
1) A concepcao classica de democracia adotada na presente pesquisa e a abordada por Dahl (1971) na obra Polyarchy
, na qual o autor afirma que a igualdade dos individuos e o fator chave para a democracia.
Dahl states in his book, Polyarchy
, that objective income inequality affects a country's politics mainly via asymmetric "distribution of political resources and skills and the creation resentments and frustrations" (Dahl 1971, pp.
is seen as the best means to resolve conflicts between the dominant elites in a society.