See Joshua Cohen & Charles Sabel, Directly-Deliberative Polyarchy
, 3 EUR.
By way of example, one can take the so-called 'transitions' to democracy, here understood as the promotion of polyarchy
, referring to 'a system in which a small group actually rules and mass participation in decision-making is consigned to leadership choice in elections carefully managed by competing elites' (Robinson 1996: 49).
She frames her understanding of the transformations of power from tyranny to polyarchy
according to Scheler's law.
20) Robert Dahl, Polyarchy
Participation and Opposition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971).
What Russians are now living through is the neoliberal version of democracy which Russia adopted after 1991, better described as polyarchy
, where factions of the ruling elite allow for some cosmetic change of faces, but where elections are controlled by the corporatised state and commented on by the corporatised media, all in league.
188) Joshua Cohen, Directly Deliberative Polyarchy
, in PHILOSOPHY, POLITICS, DEMOCRACY 187 (2009); accord ROBERT DAHL, DEMOCRACY AND ITS CRITICS 107-08 (1989) (identifying the assumptions of a democratic order).
The evidence of the predominance of democratic states is clear and consensual among the extant, global databases: the total annual sum of democratic authority points in the Polity IV database passed the number of autocratic authority points in 1990 (566 to 479); Tatu Vanhanen's Polyarchy
database shows the number of democratic states passing the 50 percent threshold in 1991 (94 of 182); the Freedom House list of electoral democracies crossed the 50 percent threshold in 1992 (99 of 186); and the number of institutional democracies identified in the Polity IV database (regimes with a Polity score of +6 or greater) reached, and then surpassed, half the countries listed in 2001 (80 of 160).
2008a) 'The Rise and Fall of Bolivian Polyarchy
, 1985-2005', Working paper presented at the WISC 2nd Global International Conference, Ljubljana, 23-36 July 2008.
When transnational elites talk about "democracy promotion" what they really mean is the promotion of polyarchy
Dahl (1989) points out in his book, Democracy and its Critics, that two factors play an important role in the establishment of polyarchy
: (1) a modern, dynamic, and pluralist society, and (2) a political culture and collective belief that support the institution of polyarchy
in a nation-state, that is, governmental procedures that serve as necessary conditions for each person's interests in a political community to be given equal consideration.
is a system in which a small group of elites actually rules a country, and the majority can choose only to accept or refuse their leadership.
Next, concerning the types of this public power, there are two: monarchy and polyarchy