The former view developed in response to the latter, and since it is one of the newest theoretical developments in the field of political economy, its well-formulated criticisms are still comparatively rare The one I find the most interesting, and the one I would like to address in the present paper, is centered around the so-called "circularity problem" (Morris, 1998; Lee, 2008; Buchanan, 2011), which focuses on the alleged inherent institutional shortcomings of legal polycentrism
The problem in question can be summarized as follows:
While still fragmented and exhibiting degrees of polycentrism
, a global commercial legal order is coming into focus.
While Infernal Affairs represents Hong Kong as a polycentric Non-City in its discourse on political polycentrism
and moral ambiguity that characterize post-colonial Hong Kong society, The Departed depicts Boston as a paradigmatic Crime City, where laws of hierarchy and retribution prevail in a social structure that is dichotomized, in the sense that the society is understood in terms of good and evil, justice and punishment, right and wrong.
"invites lawyers to move into multiple arenas, where they are required to calculate strategic costs and benefits, weighing which avenues offer the greatest possibilities for politically meaningful intervention.
A new space has been created for the emergence of a new polycentrism
She combines a political and a legal approach she calls polycentrism
and legal pluralism, studying the Environmental Liability Directive from a tripartite perspective of the EU, international and domestic in order to "analyse how different national rules at EU level and at international level try to solve common problems on environmental harm and liability issues.
In this regard, ACF adequately rose against former approaches that neglected the importance of private actors, as well as the polycentrism
of the policymaking processes (Kubler 2000).
describes situations of multilayered and diffuse governance and, thus, emphasizes its distinctive feature of emanating from multiple locales at the same time.
But the other two models - polycentrism
and regiocentrism - are based on relative decentralization and use of local advantages.
Attribute Derivation Centeredness The centeredness variable is a measure of the degree of mono- or polycentrism
within a metropolitan region and is based on three indicators: a density gradient, the percentage of the metropolitan population within a fixed radius of the central business district, and the number of population centers as defined by proximity of census tracts to regional density maxima.
Jurisdictional integrity, polycentrism
, and the design of democratic governance.
Examples: polygon, polygamous, polyester, polyamine, polycentrism
, polychromatic, polytheism, polyvalent, etc.