Embedded in this debate over racial fusion were conflicting debates in France over how races originated: Paul Broca's monogenism, "which posited an original race from which all subsequent races had emerged," and Arthur de Gobineau's polygenism
, "which argued that a variety of 'pure' races had existed during the early period of human life.
The conventional Christian alternative, some form of what is called "polygenesis" (from Greek poly, "many," and genesis, "origin"), held that God performed the special bestowal of his image in separate places of the world; a contemporary alternative, that perhaps God did this bestowing among several members of an existing population of hominids, is not really polygenism
proper--but it will require more discussion below.
10) The genie of polygenism
had been let out of its bottle.
As the limited discussions of physical anthropology, race, polygenism
, and ethnography attest, O'Connor leaves too little scope for lateral inputs in her middle-ground history.
Despite the popularity of polygenism
in the 19th century, the most commonly held view for the origin of human races in America was monogenist.
The pope also said that regardless of what evolutionary theories there are about polygenism
, the Roman Catholic Church knows from the Bible that all human beings descended from Adam.
101) Although Pope Pius XII's encyclical Humani generis (1950) had opened the door to accepting the possibility of evolution, it had explicitly noted and condemned any acceptance of polygenism
as well as any alterations to the doctrine of original sin--"which proceeds from a sin actually committed by an individual Adam and which through generation is passed on to all and is in everyone as his own.
208), but does not discuss the polygenism
(separate creation of races) of the 1830s and 1840s.
Dark Spot' in the Picturesque: The Aesthetics of Polygenism
and Henry James's "A Landscape-Painter.
Young turned to Blackie for confirmation that "ethnology" was subordinate to "divine truth"; the Nashville minister's real concern was the challenge that Nott's polygenism
presented to the orthodox interpretation of scripture.
But in little more than a decade, the condemnation of polygenism
came to be regarded as theologically obsolete and it was quietly set aside.
In Chapter four ("Monogenism and Pologyenism") in The Equality of the Human Races, Firmin like Diop rejects the theory of polygenism
(141) but instead embraces the principle of monogenism as a theory explaining the origin of humanity; he offers additional historical and textual evidence from Roman literature supporting the long-standing tradition of the classical records which identify the people of Ethiopia as Black, and that the Egyptians were the direct descendants of the Ethiopians.