First, they were named by the Greeks and have kept the Greek terminology--isocolon, anastrophe, polysyndeton
The second is not so easy to classify, but obviously terms shadow, flames, blood, and book appear twice, in the same order, the first time spread out between two clauses and the second time in a polysyndeton
in the third clause.
(die vielen "und"-Konjunktionen) und der Satzbau markieren die Dichte des Handlungsvorgangs, die sich gemass Kayser "nicht gleitend," sondern "stossweise" vollzieht (178).
Rhetorical devices such as parataxis, anaphora, polysyndeton
, asyndeton, and other parallelisms have come to govern the placement of the verbalized objects in relation to one another, all within the strictures of rhymed verse.
Oh well, Al's restriction totally forbids polysyndeton
As far as the linguistic level is concerned, it is possible to point out: (a) parallelisms and echoes: <b> emphatic articulation through polysyndeton
(the coordinating conjunction "and" is used 16 times, "or" 7 times, and there are 8 concessive conjunctions); (c) negativity (17 negative words such as "not" or "never"); (d) word recurrences: "dog.
And the use of many ands they called polysyndeton
, And they did use childish repetition and heap-plenty parallelism, And dehortatio, whereby they did exhort the people not to do this or that, And adhortatio, whereby they did exhort the people to do this or that, And finally a particularly annoying device of repetition: And palindrome was the name of the device, And the device was of the name of palindrome.
contains nine uses of the word "and" in various functions of "yoking": first in the polysyndeton
characteristic of the novel, joining the three verbs relating to the horsemen, and then as a simple coordinating conjunction joining the horsemen's clause with that of the architect; then in the ellipsis of the twice implied preposition "in" (in his coat, hat, and expression) in a sort of prepositional zeugma ("yoking" in Greek) suggesting the wearing of an expression as similar to the wearing of a hat; (4) and finally in the dominant adjectival coupling that is perhaps the most insistent stylistic feature of the novel, here in particularly strained or perhaps paradoxical form: casual and bitterly disinterested, condemned and conscientious.
At other points Phelan underestimates Heine's irony, such as in the third stanza of Heimkehr III, where the idyll is surely undercut by the polysyndeton
of the final two lines.
Syntax tumbles through these lines almost entirely without punctuation--a single comma in the fourth line is the only guide--and, while no rules are broken (this voice is too delicate for solecism), the piling up of participial and prepositional phrases and relative clauses raises a tension that peaks with the polysyndeton
of the penultimate line (beige now and broken and) before drawing itself up short with the dash, as the speaker pauses to regain her composure.
The rhetoric of the text itself, in particular the self-deprecating irony of the first prologue; the festive, mock-heroic manner that permeates both the diegetic and mimetic planes, beginning with the 1605 title; the frequently stylized language, manifested in the recourse to anaphora, polysyndeton
, bimembration, zeugma, Cesarean veni, vidi, vici constructions, and other devices; the malleable main characters, who can be adapted to whatever form the plot demands of them--all of these serve to set the Quijote apart from the modern, realistic novel and bring it closer to the postmodern free-form narrative of more recent times.