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Two animal models, partial portal vein ligation (pre-hepatic portal hypertension, PHT) and portacaval shunt (PCS), were used and the small mesenteric arteries were harvested 14 days after the initial surgery.
The other 13 patients underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement, 1 of 13 had TIPS only after a failed attempt at a side-to-side portacaval shunt (SSPCS), and 1 required an SSPCS after a failed TIPS (Hepatology 35[1]:132-39, 2002).
Starting in 1967, surgeons began performing a surgical procedure, called a portacaval shunt, which bypassed the blood around the liver.