Yet individuals who fit this description may not be very common and the term portfolio worker is now used more widely to refer to self-employed workers who work for a number of organizations or clients in exchange for fees.
A portfolio worker who is optimistic by nature appears to be endowed with some added protection.
We anticipate that optimism will have a moderating influence on the relationship between work stressors and job strain for portfolio workers because their work is a form of self-employment that depends on the vagaries of clients and therefore requires an optimist's ability to focus on positive outcomes and overcome negative events.
However, we anticipated that portfolio workers would experience variations in job characteristics allied to changes in demands from their clients.
5% of people with second jobs also reported having a third job (Simic & Sethi, 2002), Of course not all these people were portfolio workers because, for example, the figures included individuals who have stable part-time jobs with different organizations.
In relation to demands and control, portfolio workers commonly believe that their work offers high levels of variety and autonomy (Cohen & Mallon, 1999; O'Shea, 2002).
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the job strain model can account for intra-individual variations in the psychological strain of portfolio workers.
These aims were accomplished by a multi-level analysis of weekly measures of job characteristics and strain collected from a sample of portfolio workers.
The 65 portfolio workers who took part in the study were aged between 26 and 77 years (M = 48.