Thus, even if a firm had only DB plans before a hard freeze, its postfreeze pension assets, liabilities, and outlays would include the old DB and the new DC plans.
In addition, the drop in MCs triggered by the freeze should lower the average level of debt over the postfreeze years.
This filter yields our final unbalanced panel of 1,071 DB sponsoring firms (with 5,531 firm-year observations) including 179 firms (with 414 postfreeze firm-year observations) that hard freeze at least one DB plan.
biased against finding a significant decline in MCs over the postfreeze years).
From Panel C, we find that the funding ratio shows significant improvement in the postfreeze years.
Because we gauge the impact of the DB plan freeze on firm performance over a subsequent period of about three years, there is a concern that DB freeze firms may embark on other corporate restructuring activities or expansion programs in our postfreeze period.
The effects of sampling date, cultivar, and fall chemical treatment interacted with respect to postfreeze regrowth (Table 5).
In this study, Fe-treated bermudagrass exhibited no differences in terms of postfreeze regrowth from the control, with the exception of Midiron in winter 2002 and Tifway in winter 2003 (Table 5).
Schmidt and Chalmers (1993) observed improved bermudagrass postfreeze regrowth following applications of SWE fortified with humic acid and thiamine.
However, postfreeze survival was generally not different in winter and fall (Table 5).
This finding is significant as proline concentration among cultivars follows the same trend as was shown in postfreeze regrowth (Table 5).