are members of the genus Avipoxvirus of the Poxviridae family, which comprises a group of morphologically similar, large and complex DNA viruses that have varied degrees of host specificity.
Worldwide phylogenetic relationship of avian poxviruses
have evolved a wide-spectrum of open-reading frames (ORFs) encoding immunoregulators which bind host proteins and disrupt the antiviral immune response.
They discuss innate antiviral responses in invertebrates and Toll-like receptors (TLR) in vertebrates, as well as the phylogenetic relationship of pathogen sensing, the downstream adaptor molecules, and the functional consequences; nucleic acid sensing pathways, alternative regulator mechanisms of TLR signaling RIG-I-like receptors, the contribution of LGP2 to antiviral immunity, mitochondrial immune signaling complex and DNA sensors, and the complexities of downstream signaling, the adaptor molecules involved, and the regulatory pathways; and the molecular mechanisms by which pathogens such as poxviruses
, HIV, and influenza evade host innate immune mechanisms, the viral virulence factors responsible, and their interactions with the innate immune sensors.
Washington, August 20 ( ANI ): New research from scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and collaborating institutions has uncovered how poxviruses
includes smallpox evolve to rapidly adapt against host defenses - despite their low mutation rates.
are among the most dangerous viruses for the human species.
SOLVE takes advantage of the natural attributes of poxviruses
as well as their potential to be engineered to produce therapeutic viruses that can target and destroy solid tumors both systemically and locally.
Some specific topics covered include adeno-associated viruses, retroviruses, lentiviral vectors for cancer gene therapy, oncolytic herpes simplex viruses, and poxviruses
as immunomodulatory cancer therapeutics.
replicate in the host cytoplasm using a processive polymerase composed of several viral proteins.
The researchers have found that poxviruses
move to the second and third stages of development by recruiting a protein, called TATA-binding protein, in the nucleus of mammals' cells.
Lead investigator: Timothy Zamb, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative) -- Improving vectors that elicit cellular immunity: The use of poxviruses
as vaccine vectors is supported by extensive pre-clinical and clinical experience, and one of the projects will try to significantly improve the ability of poxvirus vectors to stimulate cellular immune responses.
There is an ample bibliography regarding viruses used in GMO Oncornaviruses (Retroviruses) and DNA-viruses (Papovaviruses, Poxviruses
, Herpesviruses, Adenoviruses .