1997: Guide to the identification of north sea fish using premaxillae
the edentulous premaxillae
and symphyseal portions of the dentaries are elongate.
In comparison with other Brazilian choeronycterines (Anoura Gray, 1838, Choeroniscus Thomas, 1928, Lichonycteris Thomas, 1895, and Scleronycteris Thomas, 1912), Dryadonycteris is distinguished by a set of unique distinct external and craniodental traits, including the tricolored banding pattern of the dorsal pelage; plagiopatagium inserted at the base of the toes; uropatagium long, extending past knees; calcar and foot subequal in length; well developed pre-maxilla; inflated anterior maxilla and presence of 2 foramina between premaxillae
(Wet-terer et al.
Key bones used were pharyngeal teeth structures, maxillae and dentaries in cyprinids and cobitids, and dentaries, operculae and premaxillae
or articularies in other fish taxa.
In addition to the teeth in the premaxillae
, maxillae and mandibles, dentigerous areas are seen in the ectopterygoid and accessory ectopterygoid bones (Figure ID and IE) and in the pharynx (Figure IF).
The dorsal processes of the premaxillae
are apomorphic, being longer and more vertical than those of any extant or fossil salmonine.
Mouth terminal, oblique; premaxillae
protrusile; lower jaw usually exceeding upper jaw slightly with mouth closed.
Maxillae and premaxillae
brown with little cream spots, and with two irregular cream lines that are between the anterior border of eye and tip of the snout.
Elements include a portion of the paired premaxillae
containing alveoli for the second and third incisors; maxillae with most of the premolars (PM) intact (right PM4, PM3, PM2; left PM4, PM3, the last loose in matrix); the jugals, zygomatic processes, squamosals, and exoccipital are largely intact.
The moose has adapted an unusually large amount of room between the nasals and premaxillae
which has allowed the development of a long, muscular, prehensile nose with widely spaced nostrils (Bubenik 2007).
Length of upper jaw--The length of the premaxillae
and maxillae to the point of articulation with the dorsal process of the dentary.
During a pump, the mandible abducted, the premaxillae
protruded, and the hyoid abducted.