Adverbial adjectives typically premodify
deverbal nouns or nouns that have an inherent but covert temporal quality, i.
In contrast, Chinese primarily relies on a Left Branching Direction (LBD) in which relative clauses premodify
This is precisely the reason why it is impossible to take any l-participle and use it to premodify
Thus, while adjectives such as cold or bright readily premodify
fear, their meanings are highly unelaborated, and in some contexts they merely highlight the property schema.
Other shades of referential meaning may be added by the possessive, the negative determiner, or quantifiers, which frequently premodify
the deverbal noun in our data, as exemplified in 6, 7 and 8 below, respectively.
Interestingly, AAs normally individualise, or specify, the nouns they premodify
, (29) which means that they belong to the latter group, contributing to the increase of the referentiability of the whole NP.
If this were the analysis, then the same would not so much refer to one or the other, as it would premodify
a missing element.
Readers may want to disagree with my analysis, in particular, the treatment of syntagm-initial the which, in the which, at which, which said and other 'sentential' which constructions (for example see macrosyntagms 2-4 in Text 1) where the which constructions premodify
a proper noun; and pronoun who (see for example macrosyntagms 5, 7 in Text 3) where who cannot refer to the immediate antecedent, but to one of the protagonists in the court case.