To reexamine Fuller's point, we calculate the Present Values
(not the Net Present Values
), under the assumption that the two projects are competing ways of using the same set of resources.
In year 4 the intrinsic values for the 14 paths not previously truncated are probability-weighted and discounted to determine their present values
(that is, the probability is multiplied by the option's intrinsic value and discounted by the risk-free interest rate to determine the path's present value
These results are based on 1,000 projections of the sample insured's lifetime using a Monte Carlo method and the same mortality rates used to calculate the life expectancy for deterministic pricing and the present values
of premiums and benefits for probabilistic pricing.
The present value
of the phase 2 assets is $256,000 (sum of the present values
of the investment of phase 2).
The present values
of future cash flows from each company's acquisitions have simply not supported the book values of the acquisition's goodwill.
The yield of a section 467 loan is the discount rate at which the sum of the present values
of all amounts payable by the lessee as fixed rent and interest on fixed rent, plus the sum of the present values
of all amounts payable by the lessor as interest on prepaid fixed rent, equals the sum of the present values
of the fixed rent that accrues under the rental agreement.
If the person's retirement tax rate were to increase from 15% to 28%, the present values
are $172,477 for not converting and $214,991 for converting, an advantage of $42,514 for switching to a Roth IRA.
Finally, column (6) shows that the sum of the year 1 present values
of each year's deductions totals $1,000.
These present values
were computed in accordance with full cost reporting requirements described above, with average product prices for remaining reserve life of $13.
The present values
can then be added up to determine the net present value
These impacts have all been expressed as averages of discounted present values
of future costs and savings over the thirty-year life of the coin.
The estimated present values
using each approach are calculated and then evaluated by comparing them with the present values
of actual worker earnings drawn from the Panel Study on Income Dynamics (PSID).