Typically the reduction in drag is shown to be due to the increase in base pressure [4,5,7,8] but the resulting geometry changes also introduce other drag components (referred to by some as vortex drag , slant pressure drag
 or device drag ).
While the drag of the side parts consists of friction drag only, the drag of the rear part consists of pressure drag
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Moreover, pressure drag
is far more than resistance drag in "Samand".
Although the skin friction acting on the turbulent ball is higher than that of a laminar one, the form or pressure drag
resulting from the wake represents the bigger contribution to the overall drag.
Since viscous resistance and pressure drag
have close relations with the wall shear stress and the static pressure, the wall shear stress and the static pressure are studied in detail when jetting velocity v equals 1.
A sharp nose reduces pressure drag
, but so does supersonic speed.
Compared to a knife, a wire accepts some increase in pressure drag
in order to achieve a massive reduction in wetted area and thus viscous drag.
D], sum of the friction drag coefficient and the pressure drag
coefficient, is defined as:
consists of the direction, magnitude, and orientation of an object.
For instance, friction drag (due to components of tangential forces) is much smaller than pressure drag
(due to components of normal forces).
An example comparison for unsteady pressure drag
, which is generally quite difficult to predict, is shown in the "Unsteady pressure drag
" plot on page 24.