Estrogen may reduce the circulating norepinephrine levels by the following mechanisms: (i) Estrogen may have a direct effect on the adrenal gland and at the central or peripheral nervous system;  (ii) estrogen may inhibit adrenomedullary secretion and probably blunt chromaffin cells reactivity;  (iii) estrogen may influence catecholamine synthesis, catecholamine metabolism, and affect beta-2 adrenergic receptor number;  (iv) estrogen may influence cell membrane reactivity by acting through the calcium channel;  (v) alpha-2 adrenergic receptors located presynaptically
are inhibitory to neurotransmitter release.
Nociceptin/orphanin FQ presynaptically
decreases GABAergic transmission and blocks the ethanol-induced increase of GABA release in central amygdala.
To determine whether non-NMDA receptors regulate sIPSCs or mIPSCs presynaptically
or postsynaptically, we examined the effects of DNQX on mIPSCs.
localized D2Rs regulate synthesis and release of DA as the main autoreceptor of the dopaminergic system [29, 30].
10) Although the mechanism of action of gabapentin is not completely understood, the drug likely binds to the [alpha]2[delta] subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels that then act presynaptically
to decrease the release of excitatory neurotransmitters.
The eCB-mediated LTD is just one form of presynaptically
expressed LTD that is initiated by the activation of Gi/o-coupled receptors (Atwood et al.
19) Activation of muscarinic receptors presynaptically
inhibits the amplitude of GABAergic synaptic currents.
2+] elevation, expressed presynaptically
, and mediated by retrograde endocannabinoid signaling.
[alpha]2 receptor activation by clonidine inhibits the release of Substance P from afferent fibres within the dorsal horn.
Pregabalin works presynaptically
on overactive calcium channels and can reduce the symptoms of neuropathic pain.
The neurotoxins act presynaptically
, initially releasing acetylcholine, followed by an interference with or blockade of its release.
1A] receptors are located both presynaptically
(as so-called somatodendritic receptors on the cell bodies of the 5-HT neurons in the diverse raphe nuclei in the brain stem) and postsynaptically in discrete brain regions, including the cortex, amygdala and the hippocampus (Glaser and De Vry 1992; Hamon 1997).