Summing up, Southwestern shows preference for wende in the 13th century, but favours went a century later, although the surviving old preterites
are occasionally preserved in the later period.
In Iron, plurals and preterites
to stems in final n have lost the nasal, e.
The best interpretation of the available evidence, then, is that early Indo-Aryan had a system of three contrasting preterites
(see section 1) and that this developed first to a system of two oppositions, eliminating the contrast between perfect and imperfect, then to one with a single finite preterite
Surely, an approach from the former perspective would begin by noting that the overwhelming majority of verbs having weak preterites
in Germanic represent Indo-European derived formations, such as causative-iteratives and denominatives.
These forms were seen to occur in different ratios in the different varieties, but were not exclusive to L2 and ESD varieties, since British English also exhibits a fair number of preterites
, be-periphrases and base forms (cf.
According to Pyles and Algeo (1982: 125), weak verbs "formed their preterites
and past participles in the characteristically Germanic way, by the addition of a suffix containing d or immediately after consonants, t\ Many weak verbs were originally causative verbs derived from other categories, such as nouns or adjectives, by means of the "addition of a suffix with an i-sound that mutated the stem vowel of the word" (Pyles and Algeo 1982: 125).
Spanish TMA usage compared across bilinguals and a (near) monolingual child (5;0-6;0), and two bilingual adults Daisy Mike Nico Brennan V21 A46 sp Bil Bil Bil G2 G3 Ind mood: Present + + + + + + PresProgressive + + + + + + PeriphrFuture + + + + + + Preterite
+ * * * * * Imperfect + @ + @ + @ ImpProgress + + + + PastPeriFuture + + Conditional 1 PresPerfect + + + + Sub mood: Present + + + 0 Imperfect + + 0 "+" tense form is used according to the norms of general spoken Spanish; "*"closed list of stative verbs used with imperfect morphology in preterite
-perfective contexts; "@" some preterites
instead of imperfects; "0" form has failed to occur in a high number of obligatory contexts, Ind = Indicative; Sub = Subjunctive; Periphr, Peri = Periphrastic; Imp = Imperfect; Pres = Present.
Hogg & Fulk (2011: 299) comment briefly that preterite
-present verbs "for semantic reasons developed in such a way that their preterites
came to be used in present contexts and thus came to be regarded as present forms".
Among the topics are the Old Irish paradigm of clause types, long-vowel preterites
in Indo-European, the inflection of the Hittite verb class of mema/i-, interpretation of the Tocharian subjunctive class III, the Phrygian middle, and cuneiform Luvian verbs in *-ye/o-.
However, a stative of enum is rare, an active stative of enum would be even more problematic, and a stative following two preterites
would be syntactically strange.
Moyles, The Text of Paradise Lost: A Study in Editorial Procedure (Toronto, 1985), "Spelling Preterites
and Past Participles" (pp.
The lack of discussion may unnecessarily handicap the reader since rhizotonic preterites
and related forms are ubiquitous in Alfonsine texts.