The use of combined (Es+Pr) MHT could cause the occurrence of progestogenic
side effects, including breast tenderness, swelling due to body water retention, headaches, mood changes and depression.
with higher progestogenic
activity and little affinity for androgen receptors.
Tibolone, which has weak androgenic, oestrogenic and progestogenic
activity and does not increase sex hormone binding globulin, can be used as an alternative to testosterone.
In addition to the foreign body effect, this IUD prevents pregnancy through progestogenic
mechanisms: It thickens cervical mucus, thins the endometrium, and reduces sperm capacitation.
An estrogenic action of diosgenin, but no progestogenic
action, has been reported following subcutaneous administration in the ovariectomised mouse (Aradhana 1992).
It has weak estrogenic, progestogenic
, and androgenic properties and has shown significant reduction in hot flashes and night sweating compared with placebo.
After ingestion it is converted to three metabolites, namely 3-alpha-and 3-beta-hydroxytibolone, which have oestrogenic effects, and delta-4-isomerase, which has progestogenic
and androgenic properties.
Non-enzyme-inducing antibiotics have no effect on the progesterone-only pill since the progestogenic
metabolites that are reabsorbed after the cleaving by gut bacteria are biologically inactive.
Depot medroxyprogesterone versus norethisterone oenanthate for long-acting progestogenic
There were no significant differences in the risks between HT preparations (different estrogenic and progestogenic
components; oral or transdermal; or preparations with progestagens).
Between 20% and 50% of women aged 45 to 70 in the UK are thought to be taking some form of hormone replacement therapy - including oestrogen-only, combined oestrogen and progestogen HRT and tibolone, a steroid that combines oestrogenic, progestogenic
and androgenic activity.
2], zeranol), or progestogenic
(MGA) activities, and deliver either single hormones [e.