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Any of various proteins, such as the interleukins and lymphokines, that are released by cells of the immune system and act in intercellular communication, especially in regulating inflammation and the immune response.

[cyto- + Greek kīnein, to move; see kinin.]


(Biochemistry) any of various proteins, secreted by cells, that carry signals to neighbouring cells. Cytokines include interferon
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.cytokine - any of various protein molecules secreted by cells of the immune system that serve to regulate the immune system
protein - any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk and legumes; "a diet high in protein"
TNF, tumor necrosis factor, tumour necrosis factor - a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by white blood cells (monocytes and macrophages); has an antineoplastic effect but causes inflammation (as in rheumatoid arthritis)
lymphokine - a cytokine secreted by helper T cells in response to stimulation by antigens and that acts on other cells of the immune system (as by activating macrophages)
References in periodicals archive ?
CLI-095 or PDTC administration suppressed proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1[sz]) production and macrophage infiltration into the kidney (P < 0.
Postoperative Proinflammatory Cytokine Response in the Laparoscopic and Open Cholecystectomy Groups
In the present study, we found that GBE, particularly at higher doses, attenuated glial cell proliferation in the hippocampus and white matter, and reduced hippocampal proinflammatory cytokine production after BCCAo.
Preliminary studies of HIF-2a inhibition in esophageal squamous cells in culture exposed to acidic bile salts show promising results as a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce proinflammatory cytokine expression.
MHC class II cell surface receptor polymorphisms, microgliosis, widespread T-cell infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine expression, including TNF, IL-1?
For example, [omega]3-PUFAs such as EPA and DHA have been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects during DSS colitis in mice by reducing proinflammatory cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration leading to improved DAI and mucosal tissue damage [14].
T cell activation [34], with multiple kinds of proinflammatory cytokine production such as TNF-[alpha], IFN-[gamma], IL-17A, and IL-23 [32].
A proinflammatory cytokine called Interleukin 6 decreased throughout the exercise (P=.
Initial human brain studies focused on microglia and the proinflammatory cytokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as CCL2), which among the cytokines tested was induced most robustly by ethanol in brain-slice cultures (Zou and Crews 2012).
IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine, which is expressed in different cells, including lymphocytes and microglia cells (12-14).
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is confirmed proinflammatory cytokine which plays central role in the inflammatory response following cerebral hypoxia ischemia (Loddick et al.
For this study, the focus was tumor necrosis factor alpha, a proinflammatory cytokine that helps regulate immune cells and is a major player in arthritis.