Lewis proposed that six changes have contributed to this radical break: (1) an educational revolution; (2) the emancipation of women; (3) the advance of historical developmentalism or what he called "Evolutionism"; (4) the rise of Proletarianism
or democratic egalitarianism; (5) an emphasis on practical knowledge over wisdom; (6) and an increasing skepticism toward reason.
As Chesterton put it in The Outline of Sanity: "The truth is that what we call Capitalism ought to be called Proletarianism
It may be true, as Elaine Safer asserts, that Roth uses Ira's acting job in order to satirize the "impassioned, though quite trite, rhetoric" typical of his vulgar proletarianism
The PRRWO's leadership, which included former core Lords, derided the Lords' prior nationalist analysis in favor of revolutionary proletarianism
, arguing that only a working-class revolution in the U.
Alan Wald claims Whitman "embodies not only facets of classic romantic ideology but also a robust proletarianism
, and perhaps even a proto-modernism indicated by his free verse catalogues and use of common speech" (Exiles from a Future Time: The Forging of the Mid-Twentieth Century Literary Left [Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002], 36).
Whereas Rabinowitz reads proletarianism
as the "antidote for the intellectual as woman," and Huyssen might recognize it as a stand against "mass culture as woman," Rachel Rubin analyzes the implications for Gold of the widespread image of the Jewish man as a kind of woman.
In a similar vein, Sian Adiseshiah (University of Lincoln) addressed the strategies of performing proletarianism
in the current resurgence of political drama in 21st-century Britain, by interrogating three recent plays (Jez Butterworth's Jerusalem, 2009, Gillian Slovo's The Riots, 2011, and the 2013 National Theatre revival of Simon Stephens' The Port, 2002) as to their depiction of working-class identities as deviant or subhuman in the light of Owen Jones's recent best-selling book Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class (2011).
The writers, photographers, and artists she examines were representatives of the cutting edge of their fields during the 1930s and 1940s, and had earlier expressed radical tastes either in aesthetics, such as surrealism, or in politics, such as proletarianism
, along with their avant-garde forms of representation.
Yet these policies can liberate men from proletarianism
if and only if they are accompanied by an enrichment of the inner life of the average citizen (Leisure, IV).
Diaspora Cruises: Queer Black Proletarianism
in Claude McKay's A Long Way from Home.