c) The Pursuer adopts augmented

proportional navigation (APN) guidance law.

Popularly, the

Proportional Navigation law can be decoupled in the "OXY" plane and "OXZ" plane [17]:

Sreenatha, 2000, "Fuzzy logic implementation of

proportional navigation guidance," Acta Astronautica, 2000.

The former had an improved guidance subsystem that directed the missile more accurately towards the calculated intercept point, rather than using the "typical"

proportional navigation method.

In [10], a bias

proportional navigation guidance (BPNG) law was developed, in which the desired impact time and angle were achieved simultaneously.

These evolved into conical-scan trackers with all-aspect capability and

proportional navigation guidance.

In any case, a fixed angular error is not enough to defeat a missile using

proportional navigation (Figure 5).