Floral ccology of Oreocharis acaulis (Gesncriaceae): an exceptional case of "preanthetic" protogyny
combined with approach herkogamy.
in the Caribbean reef goby, Coryphopterus personatus: gonad ontogeny and social influences on sex-change.
or protendary not observed in C.
Sadovy de Mitcheson and Liu (2008) did not designate the thumbprint emperor as a protogynous hermaphrodite, and, although the seemingly complex sexuality of this species may require further inquiry, data from Guam provide evidence for protogyny
in that population (Taylor and McIlwain, 2010).
, or female-first hermaphroditism, is found in several fish species that exhibit harem-based mating structures (e.
Such functional characters apparently are protogyny
Sexual development in fish is characterized by many factors, including genetic and environmental, male and female heterogametes, single gene and polygenic systems, protandry, protogyny
, social influence on sexual determination and many combinations and variations between and with these systems.
There are no reports on the sexual maturation of Neosilba species, but as evidenced in this study, it is probable that the females of Neosilba reached sexual maturity earlier than the conspecific males, a case of protogyny
Use of the terms protandry, protogyny
and hermaphroditism in malacology.
Gardner (1982) reported protogyny
for almost all the 150 species of Tillandsia subgenus Tillandsia, including T.
Maximum points were assigned to adichogamous species and in a decreasing order from protandry to protogyny
These mechanisms include protogyny
, chasmogamy, heterostyly, self-incompatibility, self-sterility, entomophily, anemophily, and hydrophily.