Key words: endoscopy, foreign body, ingluviotomy, proventriculus
, African grey parrot, Psittacus erithacus, hyacinth macaw, Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus
2015) demonstrated that ghrelin mRNA was located primarily in the proventriculus
, followed by the liver and other tissues in E18 chicken embryos.
Digestive organs including tongue, esophagus, proventriculus
, gizzard, small intestine, large intestine and associated glands like liver, pancreas and gall bladder were collected immediately after slaughtering the birds for histological studies.
At 7 days of age, weight of breast, yolk residue, liver, pancreas, gizzard + proventriculus
and small intestine were obtained immediately after dissection and removal of the exogenous tissues to calculate the relative weight by the formula: relative weight = (organ weight/body weight) X 100.
The digestive tract was removed, and the crop, proventriculus
, gizzard, pancreas, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and colon were excised.
Animals were then dissected, and their proventriculus
The pharynx is approximately 6 setigers in length and the proventriculus
has 34 muscle bands.
It was observed that the addition of glycerin at 7% in the diet of broilers promotes the occurrence of significant inflammatory infiltrates in the proventriculus
, caecum and colon of such animals, macroscopically the addition of glycerin in the diet did not cause any significant difference, but these differences had no significant effect on zootechnical development of such animals.
Post mortem examination revealed pin point petechial haemorrhages at the tip of the proventriculus
Next, the animals and their organs (yolk sac, heart, gastrointestinal tract [GIT], duodenal loop with pancreas, proventriculus
, and ventriculus) were weighed using a scale (WeighMax[R] W-3805-100G, China) with a precision of [+ or -] 0.
Haemorrhages at junction of proventriculus
and gizzard were observed (Fig.
Significant differences in proventriculus
were observed among the varieties at 12 weeks of age where Mushki variety had the maximum (5.