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Moreover, the first neurosurgical trepanation of the skull, performed for psychosurgical purposes, was carried out in 1 500 B.
the psychopathology hospitals in the 1920s, or the convulsive and psychosurgical treatments of the 1940s and 1950s, or the drug treatments of the 1960s and 1970s, or the "community treatments" [read "drug treatments in the community"] of the 1980s and 1990s) set the stage for widespread disillusionment with each contemporary approach and for enthusiastic welcome of the next promising treatment.
The ethics of psychosurgical intervention oscillates around two relates issues: distinguishing the cure of behavioral pathology from unjustified behavior control, and determining a psychiatric patient's authority to refuse (or consent to) this kind of treatment.