Since I emigrated from the United States to Aotearoa New Zealand in 2001, I have been on a journey to understand He Wakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga
o Nu Ti'reni 1835 (Declaration of Independence of the United Tribes of New Zealand) and Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1840.
In our study, we sought to uphold the rangatiratanga
of the whanau who participated, meaning it was up to each whanau to define for themselves the membership and composition of their own whanau.
But in the wake of Standing Rock and Uluru, with rallying cries of Tino Rangatiratanga
and Mni Wiconi, when we envision a planet that is left better rather than blighted for generations after us, this may also be the Indigenous century.
00 1835 He Whakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga
o Nu Tireni Declaration of Independence of the United Tribes of New Zealand
The principles underpinning this study were tino rangatiratanga
(self-determination), whanaungatanga (connecting and maintaining relationships) and manaakitanga (caring for others).
With, and as, tangata whenua, we value te Tiriti o Waitangi, rangatiratanga
(leadership), manaakitanga (the generous fostering of knowledge), kaitiakitanga (responsibility for, and guardianship of, knowledge), whai matauranga (intellectual curiosity), whanaungatanga (collaboration and collectiveness) and akoranga (collective responsibility for learning).
The Maori-language version, which contains the most signatures (more than 500 Maori chiefs), records that Maori would retain tino rangatiratanga
(sovereignty) over their lands and treasures, but otherwise gave kawanatanga (governance) rights to the British Crown.
The neoliberal policies of the New Zealand government that triggered Waikato Maori to submit a counterclaim of ownership of the river and the water flowing through it indicate that legal ownership is claimed mainly to secure Maori rangatiratanga
or authority over their ancestral resources.
The 'question at the heart of the claims' was whether the Crown had adequately protected Maori and their exercise of rangatiratanga
(sovereignty) over the Otaiti Reef in line with its Treaty obligations.
Despite two centuries of colonisation, Maori have continued to assert their Tiriti o Waitangi (2) confirmed right to tino rangatiratanga
(self-determination), exercising their kaitiaki responsibilities as holders of the mana whenua (ancestral authority) over their traditional lands, lakes, rivers and seas, holding these in trust for future generations.
That paragraph, right there, is tino rangatiratanga
in action--the governance of daily life retained by Maori until such time as they seek further access to British laws, and subject to exception for matters like cannibalism and human sacrifice.
Vingt ans ont ete necessaires a l'elaboration de ce rapport, qui represente plus de mille pages d'analyses et de recommandations, indiquant la facon dont la Couronne doit agir pour se conformer a son obligation contractee par l'article 2 du traite de Waitangi d'assurer la primaute du tino rangatiratanga
(autodetermination) des Maori sur le taonga.