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Like the smoker on the opium couch refocusing his eyes from the spacious walls of dream to the narrow confines of the mean little room, so Old Tarwater stared vague-eyed before him across his dying fire, at a huge moose that stared at him in startlement, dragging a wounded leg, manifesting all signs of extreme exhaustion; it, too, had been straying blindly in the shadow-land, and had wakened to reality only just ere it stepped into Tarwater's fire.
Major realignments and refocusings are leading to a new globalization of the mortgage and finance industries.
The discussion in this section deals primarily with voluntary refocusing but does look at two studies that examine the role of governance in refocusings that are a mixture of voluntary and involuntary.
The last two studies in this section examine refocusings that are not entirely voluntary in that the firms received tender offers prior to initiating refocusing.
The focus of this study is on corporate refocusing or downscoping.
Although it is assumed that conglomerate firms are refocusing (Lee & Cooperman, 1989; Williams et al.
The question we are left with is: Why has corporate refocusing or downscoping become so prevalent in the 1980s and early 1990s?
Others have argued that increases in global competition led to refocusing (Hoskisson & Hitt, 1994; Shleifer & Vishny, 1991).
The only empirical research examining the effect of antitrust policy and global competition on refocusing was conducted by Liebeskind and Opler (1993).
In a case history of the voluntary refocusing at General Mills, Donaldson (1990) details the internal pressures that led to GM's refocusing effort.
These findings suggest that blockholders in the early 1980s may not have had a direct influence on refocusing but served as a deterrent to excessive diversification.
It appears that low board involvement was associated with top management initiating refocusing without pressure from the board.
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