There are features like Rhoticity
(quality of being rhotics: variant phonemes related to /r/ are called rhotics), Lateralization, and Roundedness which bear extra long duration.
Scholars from Europe, Africa, and Malaysia describe the acquisition of English vowels and consonants and their distribution in syllables and the acquisition of English prosody, discussing rhoticity
in Brunei English and Malaysian English, the acquisition of voice onset time, the vowel perception of Polish children who moved to Ireland, the realization of English loanwords in Bangla (Bengali), the production of onset clusters by Nigerian speakers of English, the acquisition of speech rhythm in German and Mandarin Chinese speakers of English, the perception and production of stress placement in English, and prosodic strategies of marking focus and givenness in South African English.
As a consequence, this paper, besides giving a general overview of Orkney phonology, also aims to highlight those features of the Orkney accent that have received little or no attention in the literature so far, such as the question of rhoticity
, the use of ejectives and the realization of the hesitation particle, as well as a fresh look at the intonation patterns.
Salbrina Sharbawi and David Deterding 2010 Rhoticity
in Brunei English.
Another concern with vowels involves rhoticity
, and we need to be able to devise a model which accounts for both rhotic and non-rhotic accents.
One of the characteristics that is generally considered as typical of North American English is rhoticity
, that is, the use of the phoneme /r/ in syllabic codas in words such as "car", "beer" and "more".
in different varieties is discussed by many researchers.
But in the 1500s the southeastern-based forerunner of RP was not non-rhotic, because loss of rhoticity
did not occur in English until the 1700s.
In an argument similar to that proposed to explain the position of the short front vowels, the authors cast doubt on Lanham's (1978) claim that rhoticity
is due to the influence of Afrikaans and suggest instead that semi-rhoticity
could be a relic feature of the original British English input dialects.
Though historical evidence supports this usage in non-rhotic (and standard) speech following the loss of rhoticity
in final and post-vocalic position (whereby intrusive /r/ comes to operate as a sandhi mechanism analogous to that of linking /r/),(16) Burchfield remains categorical in its exclusion.
In the speech of university-educated PC, who has had extensive exposure in adulthood to RP, we found, as mentioned above, consistent rhoticity
, but a LOT/THOUGHT contrast, as in knot/naught, cot/caught, and an Anglo-English TRAP vowel.
Full or variable rhoticity
with final or preconsonantal /r/ realised as the retroflex colouring of vowels occurs throughout southwestern England, according to the LAE.