Repeat MRI of the brain showed extension of signal abnormalities into both cerebellar peduncles, the cerebellum and rostrally
into the basal ganglia.
SSEP monitoring involves electrical stimulation caudal to the region of the spinal cord that is being assessed and the recording of these signals rostrally
, usually in the scalp, to evaluate the integrity of the sensory pathway.
Further testing 6 cm caudal to the 13th rib also produced high expiratory responses but also induced unwanted lower-limb movements, which could be avoided by stimulating more rostrally
where peak expiratory pressures could still be maintained.
The MRI examination revealed extensive abnormal T2 and short-tau inversion-recovery hyperintense tissue associated with the right side of the head and neck, extending from an intermuscular location in the right cranial neck rostrally
, infiltrating between muscle planes, and extending into the right retro-orbital tissue and nasal cavity.
, there was minimal involvement in the midbrain, thalamus, and basal nuclei, but the cerebral cortex and underlying corona radiata were devoid of inflammatory cell infiltrates (Figure 2, Appendix, wwwnc.
The distal portion of the catheter lies vertical and is loosely sutured in the paravertebral gutter with the tip pointing rostrally
(adjacent to the thoracotomy level) (Figure 1).
7); scales immediately behind pectoral origin cycloid, but becoming more strongly ctenoid posteriorly; scales on caudal peduncle strongly ctenoid; scales on chest laterally and ventrally strongly ctenoid; large interpelvic scale present; scales on belly weakly ctenoid, about 1/3 smaller than flank scales and imbricating; scales on anal-genital region of similar size to flank scales, weakly to strongly ctenoid; scales on caudal cycloid, arranged in single row between and along rays; two scale rows between upper and lower lateral line, rostrally
and caudally; four scale rows between upper lateral line and base of dorsal; four scale rows between bases of pectoral and ventral fins.
Basisphenoid (Bas): articulated rostrally
with the caudal edge of the pterygoid bone and caudally with the rostral edge of the basioccipital (Figure 1C).
ii) Divergence: Sensory input arriving at the spinal cord from individual internal organs is delivered to widespread spinal regions extending many segments rostrally
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated that intradural extension resulted in brainstem compression and created an intimate relationship between the lesion and both the vertebral artery and the cervicomedullary junction (figure 1, B); the tumor also extended rostrally
to the middle cerebellar peduncle (figure 1, C).
In the present study, lamprey were divided into two groups, one in which the spinal cord was transected rostrally
at 10% body length (BL) and another group in which the spinal cord was transected caudally at 50% BL.
A 20-cm long, 3-cm wide band of elastic bandage (Vetrap, 3M, St Paul, MN, USA) was cut, and a 2-cm diameter hole was created 2 cm from an extremity of the bandage where the frontal knob was placed to prevent the bandage from slipping rostrally