rough


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rough
left: rough jade
right: polished jade

rough

 (rŭf)
adj. rough·er, rough·est
1.
a. Having a surface marked by irregularities, protuberances, or ridges; not smooth: planed the board so it was no longer rough.
b. Coarse or shaggy to the touch: a rough scratchy blanket.
2.
a. Difficult to travel over or through: the rough terrain of the highlands.
b. Characterized by violent motion; turbulent: rough waters.
c. Difficult to endure or live through, especially because of harsh or inclement weather: a rough winter.
d. Unpleasant or difficult: had a rough time during the exam.
3.
a. Characterized by or done with violence or forcefulness: a sport noted for rough play; a package that received rough handling.
b. Boisterous, disorderly, or given to violence: ran with a rough crowd.
c. Characterized by violence or crime: lives in a rough neighborhood.
d. Lacking polish or finesse: rough manners.
4. Harsh to the ear: a rough raspy sound.
5. Being in a natural state: rough diamonds.
6. Not perfected, completed, or fully detailed: a rough drawing; rough carpentry.
n.
1. The surface or part of something that is uneven or coarse: felt the rough of his chin.
2.
a. Rugged overgrown terrain.
b. Sports The area of a golf hole in which the grass is left unmowed or is cut to a length longer than that of the fairway.
3.
a. A disorderly, unrefined, or unfinished state.
b. A difficult or disagreeable aspect or condition of something: observed politics in the rough when working as an intern on Capitol Hill.
4. A person given to violent or disorderly behavior; a rowdy.
tr.v. roughed, rough·ing, roughs
1.
a. To treat roughly or with physical violence: roughed up his opponent.
b. Sports To treat (an opposing player) with unnecessary roughness, often in violation of the rules: was ejected from the game for roughing the passer.
2. To prepare or indicate in an unfinished form: rough out a house plan.
adv.
In a rough manner; roughly: The engine began to run rough and faltered.
Idiom:
rough it
To live without the usual comforts and conveniences: roughed it in a small hunting shack.

[Middle English, from Old English rūh.]

rough′er n.
rough′ly adv.
rough′ness n.

rough

(rʌf)
adj
1. (of a surface) not smooth; uneven or irregular
2. (of ground) covered with scrub, boulders, etc
3. denoting or taking place on uncultivated ground: rough grazing; rough shooting.
4. shaggy or hairy
5. turbulent; agitated: a rough sea.
6. (of the performance or motion of something) uneven; irregular: a rough engine.
7. (of behaviour or character) rude, coarse, ill mannered, inconsiderate, or violent
8. harsh or sharp: rough words.
9. informal severe or unpleasant: a rough lesson.
10. (of work, a task, etc) requiring physical rather than mental effort
11. informal ill or physically upset: he felt rough after an evening of heavy drinking.
12. unfair or unjust: rough luck.
13. harsh or grating to the ear
14. harsh to the taste
15. without refinement, luxury, etc
16. not polished or perfected in any detail; rudimentary; not elaborate: rough workmanship; rough justice.
17. not prepared or dressed: rough gemstones.
18. (of a guess, estimate, etc) approximate
19. informal Austral (of a chance) not good
20. (Phonetics & Phonology) having the sound of h; aspirated
21. rough on informal chiefly
a. severe towards
b. unfortunate for (a person)
22. the rough side of one's tongue harsh words; a reprimand, rebuke, or verbal attack
n
23. rough ground
24. (Art Terms) a sketch or preliminary piece of artwork
25. an unfinished or crude state (esp in the phrase in the rough)
26. (Golf) the rough golf the part of the course bordering the fairways where the grass is untrimmed
27. (Tennis) tennis squash badminton the side of a racket on which the binding strings form an uneven line
28. (Squash & Fives) tennis squash badminton the side of a racket on which the binding strings form an uneven line
29. (Badminton) tennis squash badminton the side of a racket on which the binding strings form an uneven line
30. informal a rough or violent person; thug
31. the unpleasant side of something (esp in the phrase take the rough with the smooth)
adv
32. in a rough manner; roughly
33. sleep rough to spend the night in the open; be without a home or without shelter
vb
34. (tr) to make rough; roughen
35. (tr; foll by out, in, etc) to prepare (a sketch, report, piece of work, etc) in preliminary form
36. rough it informal to live without the usual comforts or conveniences of life
[Old English rūh; related to Old Norse ruksa, Middle Dutch rūge, rūwe, German rauh]
ˈroughness n

rough

(rʌf)

adj. rough•er, rough•est,
n., adv., v. adj.
1. having a coarse or uneven surface, as from projections, irregularities, or breaks.
2. shaggy or coarse: a dog with a rough coat.
3. steep or uneven and covered with high grass, brush, stones, etc.; wild: rough country.
4. acting with or characterized by violence: a rough sport.
5. characterized by turbulence: rough seas.
6. stormy or tempestuous, as wind or weather.
7. lacking in gentleness, care, or consideration: rough handling.
8. sharp or harsh: rough words.
9. unmannerly or rude.
10. disorderly or riotous: a rough mob.
11. difficult or unpleasant: to have a rough time of it.
12. harsh to the ear.
13. harsh to the taste.
14. coarse, as food.
15. lacking culture or refinement.
16. without comforts or conveniences: rough camping.
17. not elaborated, perfected, or corrected; unpolished: a rough draft.
18. approximate or tentative: a rough guess.
19. crude, nonprocessed, or unprepared: rough rice.
20. requiring exertion or strength: rough manual labor.
n.
21. something that is rough, esp. rough ground.
22. any part of a golf course bordering the fairway on which the grass, weeds, etc., are not trimmed.
23. the unpleasant or difficult part of anything.
24. anything in its crude or preliminary form, as a drawing.
adv.
25. in a rough manner; roughly.
v.t.
26. to make rough; roughen.
27. to subject to physical violence (usu. fol. by up).
28. to subject to some rough, preliminary process of working or preparation.
29. to sketch roughly or in outline (often fol. by in or out).
30. to subject (a player on an opposing team) to unnecessary physical abuse, as in blocking or tackling.
v.i.
31. to become rough, as a surface.
32. to behave roughly.
Idioms:
rough it, to live without customary comforts or conveniences.
[before 1000; Middle English (adj. and n.), Old English rūh (adj.), c. Middle Dutch rū(ch), Old High German rūh (German rauh)]
rough′ish, adj.
rough′ly, adv.

rough


Past participle: roughed
Gerund: roughing

Imperative
rough
rough
Present
I rough
you rough
he/she/it roughs
we rough
you rough
they rough
Preterite
I roughed
you roughed
he/she/it roughed
we roughed
you roughed
they roughed
Present Continuous
I am roughing
you are roughing
he/she/it is roughing
we are roughing
you are roughing
they are roughing
Present Perfect
I have roughed
you have roughed
he/she/it has roughed
we have roughed
you have roughed
they have roughed
Past Continuous
I was roughing
you were roughing
he/she/it was roughing
we were roughing
you were roughing
they were roughing
Past Perfect
I had roughed
you had roughed
he/she/it had roughed
we had roughed
you had roughed
they had roughed
Future
I will rough
you will rough
he/she/it will rough
we will rough
you will rough
they will rough
Future Perfect
I will have roughed
you will have roughed
he/she/it will have roughed
we will have roughed
you will have roughed
they will have roughed
Future Continuous
I will be roughing
you will be roughing
he/she/it will be roughing
we will be roughing
you will be roughing
they will be roughing
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been roughing
you have been roughing
he/she/it has been roughing
we have been roughing
you have been roughing
they have been roughing
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been roughing
you will have been roughing
he/she/it will have been roughing
we will have been roughing
you will have been roughing
they will have been roughing
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been roughing
you had been roughing
he/she/it had been roughing
we had been roughing
you had been roughing
they had been roughing
Conditional
I would rough
you would rough
he/she/it would rough
we would rough
you would rough
they would rough
Past Conditional
I would have roughed
you would have roughed
he/she/it would have roughed
we would have roughed
you would have roughed
they would have roughed

rough

Untrimmed grass bordering the fairway.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.rough - the part of a golf course bordering the fairway where the grass is not cut shortrough - the part of a golf course bordering the fairway where the grass is not cut short
golf course, links course - course consisting of a large landscaped area for playing golf
land site, site - the piece of land on which something is located (or is to be located); "a good site for the school"
Verb1.rough - prepare in preliminary or sketchy form
prepare - to prepare verbally, either for written or spoken delivery; "prepare a report"; "prepare a speech"
Adj.1.rough - having or caused by an irregular surface; "trees with rough bark"; "rough ground"; "rough skin"; "rough blankets"; "his unsmooth face"
uneven - not even or uniform as e.g. in shape or texture; "an uneven color"; "uneven ground"; "uneven margins"; "wood with an uneven grain"
unironed, wrinkled - (of linens or clothes) not ironed; "a pile of unironed laundry"; "wore unironed jeans"
unpolished - not carefully reworked or perfected or made smooth by polishing; "dull unpolished shoes"
irregular - contrary to rule or accepted order or general practice; "irregular hiring practices"
coarse, harsh - of textures that are rough to the touch or substances consisting of relatively large particles; "coarse meal"; "coarse sand"; "a coarse weave"
nonslippery - not slippery; not likely to slip or skid
smooth - having a surface free from roughness or bumps or ridges or irregularities; "smooth skin"; "a smooth tabletop"; "smooth fabric"; "a smooth road"; "water as smooth as a mirror"
2.rough - (of persons or behavior) lacking refinement or finesse; "she was a diamond in the rough"; "rough manners"
unrefined - (used of persons and their behavior) not refined; uncouth; "how can a refined girl be drawn to such an unrefined man?"
3.rough - not quite exact or correctrough - not quite exact or correct; "the approximate time was 10 o'clock"; "a rough guess"; "a ballpark estimate"
inexact - not exact
4.rough - full of hardship or trials; "the rocky road to success"; "they were having a rough time"
difficult, hard - not easy; requiring great physical or mental effort to accomplish or comprehend or endure; "a difficult task"; "nesting places on the cliffs are difficult of access"; "difficult times"; "why is it so hard for you to keep a secret?"
5.rough - violently agitated and turbulent; "boisterous winds and waves"; "the fierce thunders roar me their music"- Ezra Pound; "rough weather"; "rough seas"
stormy - (especially of weather) affected or characterized by storms or commotion; "a stormy day"; "wide and stormy seas"
6.rough - unpleasantly harsh or grating in sound; "a gravelly voice"
cacophonic, cacophonous - having an unpleasant sound; "as cacophonous as a henyard"- John McCarten
7.rough - ready and able to resort to force or violence; "pugnacious spirits...lamented that there was so little prospect of an exhilarating disturbance"- Herman Melville; "they were rough and determined fighting men"
aggressive - having or showing determination and energetic pursuit of your ends; "an aggressive businessman"; "an aggressive basketball player"; "he was aggressive and imperious; positive in his convictions"; "aggressive drivers"
8.rough - of the margin of a leaf shape; having the edge cut or fringed or scalloped
phytology, botany - the branch of biology that studies plants
unsubdivided, simple - (botany) of leaf shapes; of leaves having no divisions or subdivisions
compound - composed of more than one part; "compound leaves are composed of several lobes; "compound flower heads"
smooth - of the margin of a leaf shape; not broken up into teeth
9.rough - causing or characterized by jolts and irregular movements; "a rough ride"
smooth - of motion that runs or flows or proceeds without jolts or turbulence; "a smooth ride"
10.rough - not shaped by cutting or trimmingrough - not shaped by cutting or trimming; "an uncut diamond"; "rough gemstones"
11.rough - not carefully or expertly made; "managed to make a crude splint"; "a crude cabin of logs with bark still on them"; "rough carpentry"
unskilled - not having or showing or requiring special skill or proficiency; "unskilled in the art of rhetoric"; "an enthusiastic but unskillful mountain climber"; "unskilled labor"; "workers in unskilled occupations are finding fewer and fewer job opportunities"; "unskilled workmanship"
12.rough - not perfected; "a rough draft"; "a few rough sketches"
unpolished - not carefully reworked or perfected or made smooth by polishing; "dull unpolished shoes"
13.rough - unpleasantly stern; "wild and harsh country full of hot sand and cactus"; "the nomad life is rough and hazardous"
unpleasant - disagreeable to the senses, to the mind, or feelings ; "an unpleasant personality"; "unpleasant repercussions"; "unpleasant odors"
14.rough - unkind or cruel or uncivil; "had harsh words"; "a harsh and unlovable old tyrant"; "a rough answer"
unkind - lacking kindness; "a thoughtless and unkind remark"; "the unkindest cut of all"
Adv.1.rough - with roughness or violence (`rough' is an informal variant for `roughly'); "he was pushed roughly aside"; "they treated him rough"
colloquialism - a colloquial expression; characteristic of spoken or written communication that seeks to imitate informal speech
2.rough - with rough motion as over a rough surface; "ride rough"

rough

adjective
1. uneven, broken, rocky, rugged, irregular, jagged, bumpy, stony, craggy She made her way across the rough ground.
uneven even, level, regular, smooth, unbroken
2. coarse, disordered, tangled, hairy, fuzzy, bushy, shaggy, dishevelled, uncut, unshaven, tousled, bristly, unshorn people who looked rough and stubbly
coarse soft, smooth
5. unpleasant, hard, difficult, tough, uncomfortable, drastic, unjust Women have a rough time in our society.
unpleasant easy, soft, comfortable, pleasant, cushy (informal)
6. (Informal) unwell, poorly (informal), ill, upset, sick, crook (Austral. & N.Z. informal), rotten (informal), below par, off colour, under the weather (informal), not a hundred per cent (informal), ropey or ropy (Brit. informal) The lad is still feeling a bit rough.
7. approximate, estimated, vague, ballpark, imprecise, inexact We were only able to make a rough estimate.
approximate perfected, specific, exact
8. vague, general, sketchy, imprecise, hazy, foggy, amorphous, inexact I've got a rough idea of what he looks like.
11. stormy, wild, turbulent, agitated, choppy, tempestuous, inclement, squally The ships collided in rough seas.
stormy quiet, calm, smooth, gentle, tranquil
12. grating, harsh, jarring, raucous, rasping, husky, discordant, gruff, cacophonous, unmusical, inharmonious 'Wait!' a rough voice commanded.
grating soft, smooth, harmonious
13. harsh, tough, sharp, severe, nasty, cruel, rowdy, curt, unfeeling I was a bit rough with you this morning.
harsh just, kind, soft, quiet, gentle, pleasant, mild
noun
1. outline, draft, mock-up, preliminary sketch, suggestion Editors are always saying that the roughs are better.
2. (Informal) thug, tough, casual, rowdy, hoon (Austral. & N.Z.), bully boy, bruiser, ruffian, lager lout, roughneck (slang), ned (slang) The roughs of the town are out.
rough and ready
1. makeshift, adequate, crude, provisional, improvised, sketchy, thrown together, cobbled together, stopgap Here is a rough and ready measurement.
2. unrefined, shabby, untidy, unkempt, unpolished, ungroomed, ill-groomed The soldiers were a bit rough and ready.
rough and tumble
1. fight, struggle, scrap (informal), brawl, scuffle, punch-up (Brit. informal), fracas, affray (Law), dust-up (informal), shindig (informal), donnybrook, scrimmage, roughhouse (slang), shindy (informal), melee or mêlée the rough and tumble of political combat
rough someone up (Informal) beat up, batter, thrash, do over (Brit., Austral., & N.Z. slang), work over (slang), mistreat, manhandle, maltreat, bash up (informal), beat the living daylights out of (informal), knock about or around They roughed him up a bit
rough something out outline, plan, draft, sketch, suggest, block out, delineate, adumbrate He roughed out a framework for their story.

rough

adjective
1. Having a surface that is not smooth:
2. Consisting of or covered with large particles:
3. Violently disturbed or agitated, as by storms:
4. Requiring great or extreme bodily, mental, or spiritual strength:
5. Causing sharp, often prolonged discomfort:
6. Hard to deal with or get out of:
Informal: sticky.
8. Marked by vigorous physical exertion:
9. Disagreeable to the sense of hearing:
10. In a primitive state; not domesticated or cultivated; produced by nature:
11. Not perfected, elaborated, or completed:
12. Lacking expert, careful craftsmanship:
verb
To be rough or brutal with.Also used with up:
Slang: mess up.
phrasal verb
rough in or out
To draw up a preliminary plan or version of:
phrasal verb
rough up
To injure or damage, as by abuse or heavy wear:
batter, knock about (or around), mangle, maul.
noun
A preliminary plan or version, as of a written work:
Translations
خَشِنعاصِفعَنيف، فَظ، صاخِبغَيْرُ لَطِيفغَيْر مُسْتَوٍ
hrubýnásilníknásilnýnepříjemnýporost
grovhårdløseligruujævn
kareligilähedane
karheikkokarkeakovakourainenraffi
grub
durvahepehupás terepnagyol
erfiîur; hrjúfurgrófur, hrjúfurgrófur, ójafngrófur, ómótaîurröff, kargi
手荒な粗い
거친
apmestiaudringasnelygi aikštelėnesubrandintasneužbaigtas
aptuvensgrambainsgrūtshuligānsnelīdzens
grobhrapavneravenpribliženraskav
grovhårdhänt
รุนแรงหยาบ
kabakaba alankabadayıkülhanbeyipürüzlü
rápthô lỗ

rough

[rʌf]
A. ADJ (rougher (compar) (roughest (superl)))
1. (= coarse) [surface, texture] → áspero, rugoso; [skin] → áspero; [cloth] → basto; [hand] → calloso
to give sb the rough edge or side of one's tongueechar una buena bronca a algn
2. (= uneven) [terrain] → accidentado, escabroso; [road] → desigual, lleno de baches; [track, ground] → desigual; [edge] → irregular
he'll be a good salesman once we knock off the rough edgesserá un buen vendedor una vez que lo hayamos pulido un poco
3. (= harsh, unpleasant) [voice, sound] → ronco; [wine] → áspero; [life] → difícil, duro; [climate, winter] → duro, severo
4. (= not gentle) [behaviour, person, voice, manner] → brusco; [words, tone] → severo, áspero; [play, sport, game] → violento; [neighbourhood, area] → malo, peligroso
you're too rougheres demasiado bruto
he's a rough customeres un tipo peligroso
to get rough [person] → ponerse bruto; [game] → volverse violento
children's toys must be able to withstand a lot of rough handlinglos juguetes de niños tienen que ser resistentes porque con frecuencia los tratan sin ningún cuidado
he got rough justicerecibió un castigo duro pero apropiado
rough stuffviolencia f
there were complaints of rough treatment at the hands of the policehubo quejas de malos tratos a manos de la policía
he came in for some rough treatment in the pressfue objeto de duras críticas por parte de la prensa
to be rough with sbser brusco con algn
to be rough with sthser brusco con algo
5. (= stormy) [sea] → agitado, encrespado; [wind] → violento; [weather] → tormentoso, tempestuoso
we had a rough crossingel barco se movió mucho durante la travesía
to get rough [sea] → embravecerse
6. (= unpolished, crude) [person] → tosco, rudo; [manners, speech] → tosco; [shelter, table, tunic] → tosco, basto; [gemstone] → en bruto
he's a rough diamondes un diamante en bruto
7. (= hard, tough) → duro
things are rough now, but they will get betterlas cosas están un poco difíciles ahora pero mejorarán
to be rough on sb [situation] → ser duro para algn; [person] → ser duro con algn
parents' divorce can be really rough on childrenel divorcio de los padres puede ser muy duro para los niños
don't be so rough on him, it's not his faultno seas tan duro con él, no es culpa suya
it's a bit rough on him to have to do all the houseworkno es muy justo que él tenga que hacer todo el trabajo de la casa
to give sb a rough ride or a rough timehacérselo pasar mal a algn
to have a rough time (of it)pasarlo mal
when the going gets roughcuando las cosas se ponen feas
8. (Brit) (= ill) "how are you?" - "a bit rough"-¿cómo estás? -no muy bien
to feel roughencontrarse mal
to look roughtener muy mal aspecto or muy mala cara
9. (= approximate) [calculation, estimate, description, outline] → aproximado; [translation] → hecho a grandes rasgos, aproximado
I would say 50 at a rough guessdiría que 50 aproximadamente
as a rough guide, it should take about ten minutesllevará unos diez minutos más o menos, llevará aproximadamente diez minutos
can you give me a rough idea of how long it will take?¿puedes darme una idea aproximada or más o menos una idea de cuánto tiempo llevará?
10. (= preparatory) [work] → de preparación, preliminar
rough bookcuaderno m de borrador
rough copy, rough draftborrador m
rough paperpapel m de borrador
rough plan, rough sketchbosquejo m, boceto m
B. ADV
to live roughvivir sin las comodidades más básicas
to play roughjugar duro
to sleep roughdormir a la intemperie
to cut up rough she cut up rough when she discovered what had been going onse puso hecha una furia cuando descubrió lo que había estado pasando
C. N
1. (= person) → matón m, tipo m duro
2. (= draft) → borrador m
we'll do it in rough firstlo haremos primero en borrador
3. to take the rough with the smoothtomar las duras con las maduras
4. (Golf) → rough m, zona f de matojos
D. VT to rough itvivir sin comodidades
E. CPD rough puff pastry Nhojaldre m
rough in VT + ADV [+ shape, figure, outline] → esbozar, bosquejar
rough out VT + ADV [+ plan] → esbozar, bosquejar
rough up VT + ADV
1. [+ hair] → despeinar
2. to rough sb updar una paliza a algn

rough

[ˈrʌf]
adj
(= not smooth) [cloth, skin] → rêche; [hands] → rêche; [surface] → rugueux/euse; [terrain, ground] → accidenté(e); [path] → rocailleux/euse
My hands are rough → J'ai les mains rêches.
rough edges [object] → aspérités fpl; [performance, song, piece writing] → côté m mal dégrossi; [person's character] → côté m mal dégrossi
(= harsh) [voice] → rauque, rude
[wine] → râpeux/euse
(= coarse) [person, manner] → rude, fruste
(= violent) [game, sport, person, treatment] → brutal(e)
Rugby's a rough sport → Le rugby est un sport brutal.
to be rough with sb → être brutal avec qn
[district, area, neighbourhood] → mal famé(e)
It's a rough area → C'est un quartier mal famé.
(= stormy) [weather] → mauvais(e); [sea] → agité(e)
The sea is rough today → La mer est agitée aujourd'hui.
The sea was rough → La mer était agitée.
(= approximate) [calculation, plan] → approximatif/ive; [idea, description] → vague before n
I've got a rough idea → J'ai une vague idée.
at a rough guess → à vue de nez
a rough sketch → un schéma
It often helps to make a rough sketch → Cela aide souvent de faire un schéma.
a rough outline of sth → les grande lignes de qch
a rough estimate → une estimation approximative
as a rough guide → à titre indicatif
(= basic) [shelter, table] → rudimentaire
(= difficult) [life] → dur(e); [day] → dur(e) before n
to have a rough time → en voir de dures
to have a rough time of it → en voir de dures
to be rough on sb [situation] → être dur pour qn
It's rough on him → C'est dur pour lui.
(= unfair) → rude
to get a rough deal → ne pas être gâté(e)
to be rough on sb (= unkind, unfair) → être dur(e) avec qn
(British) (= ill) to feel rough → être mal fichu(e)
to look rough → ne pas avoir l'air bien
She looks rough! Has she been up all night? → Elle n'a pas l'air bien! Elle n'a pas dormi de la nuit?
n
(GOLF)rough m
(= draft) in rough [draw, write] → au brouillon
vt
to rough it → vivre à la dure
adv
to play rough [children, sportsmen] → jouer avec brutalité
(British) to sleep rough → coucher à la dure
to live rough → vivre à la dure
rough out
vt sep (= draft) → esquisser
rough up
vt sep (= beat up) → malmener

rough

adj (+er)
(= uneven) grounduneben; path, roaduneben, holprig; surface, skin, hands, clothrau; rough edges (fig)Ecken und Kanten pl
(= harsh) soundhart; voice, tonerau; taste, winesauer; wordsgrob, hart; to have rough luckschweres Pech haben; to have a rough tongue (fig)eine scharfe Zunge haben; he got the rough side of her tongueer bekam (von ihr) den Marsch geblasen
(= coarse, unrefined) personungehobelt; manners, speechgrob, roh
(= violent) person, childgrob, roh; treatment, handlinggrob, hart; lifewüst; children’s gamewild; match, sport, workhart; neighbourhood, manners, pubrau; sea, weather, windrau, stürmisch; sea crossingstürmisch; a rough customer (inf)ein übler Typ (inf); to be rough with somebodygrob mit jdm umgehen, unsanft mit jdm umspringen (inf); rough play (Sport) → Holzerei f (inf)
(inf: = unpleasant) he had a rough time (of it)es ging ihm ziemlich dreckig (inf); to be in for a rough time (of it)harten Zeiten entgegensehen; the examiners gave him a rough timedie Prüfer haben ihn ganz schön rangenommen (inf); to make things rough for somebodyjdm Schwierigkeiten machen; to be rough on somebodygrob mit jdm umspringen; it’s rough on himdas ist hart für ihn; things are rough just nowdie Dinge stehen im Moment schlecht; to have a rough ridees nicht leicht haben; to get a rough rideSchwierigkeiten bekommen; to give somebody a rough ridejdm die Hölle heißmachen (inf); he faces a rough ride from the mediadie Medien werden es ihm nicht leicht machen; when the going gets roughwenn es hart wird, …
(= approximate, rudimentary) plan, calculation, estimate, translationgrob, ungefähr; workmanshipschludrig; rough sketchFaustskizze f; in its rough stateim Rohzustand; do your rough work on the paper providedmacht euer Konzept auf dem dafür bereitgestellten Papier; at a rough guessgrob geschätzt; to give somebody a rough ideajdm einen groben Anhaltspunkt geben; to have a rough ideaeine vage Idee or eine ungefähre Ahnung haben
(= basic, crude) shelternotdürftig; clothesderb
(inf: = unwell) to feel roughsich mies fühlen (inf); the engine sounds pretty roughder Motor hört sich nicht gerade gut an
adv livewüst; playwild; to sleep roughim Freien übernachten
n
unwegsames Gelände; (Golf) → Rau nt; rough or smooth? (Sport) → untere oder obere Seite? (des Schlägers, die durch einen roten Faden gekennzeichnet ist; zum Bestimmen, wer anfängt); she likes a bit of rough (Brit inf: sexually) → sie mags gern heftig (sl)
(= unpleasant aspect) to take the rough with the smoothdas Leben nehmen, wie es kommt
(= draft, sketch)Rohentwurf m; in (the) roughim Rohzustand; a diamond in the roughein Rohdiamant m
(= person)Rowdy m, → Schläger m
vt to rough it (inf)primitiv leben

rough

:
rough-and-ready
adj method, equipment, placeprovisorisch; workzusammengehauen (inf), → zusammengepfuscht (inf); personrau(beinig); measure, interpretation, attitudegrob
rough-and-tumble
n (= play)Balgerei f; (= fighting)Keilerei f; after the rough of life in the navynach seinem wilden Leben in der Marine
rough book
n (Sch) → Schmierheft nt
roughcast vb: pret, ptp <roughcast>
nRauputz m
vtrau verputzen
rough coat
n (Archit) → Roh- or Rauputz m
rough copy
nKonzept nt
rough diamond
n (lit)Rohdiamant m; he’s a rougher ist rau, aber herzlich
rough draft
rough-dry

rough

:
rough-hew
vt timbergrob behauen
roughhouse (inf)
nSchlägerei f

rough

:
rough notebook
n (Sch) → Schmierheft nt
rough paper
nKonzeptpapier nt
roughrider
nZureiter(in) m(f)
roughshod
adv to ride rough over somebody/somethingrücksichtslos über jdn/etw hinweggehen
rough-spoken
adj to be roughsich ungehobelt ausdrücken
rough stuff
nSchlägereien pl, → eine Schlägerei
rough trade
n (sl) (ohne feste Bindungsabsicht ausgewählter) homosexueller Geschlechtspartner mit grobem oder gewalttätigem Verhalten

rough

[rʌf]
1. adj (-er (comp) (-est (superl)))
a. (uneven, ground, road, path, edge) → accidentato/a; (not smooth, skin, cloth, surface, hands) → ruvido/a
b. (voice) → rauco/a; (taste, wine) → aspro/a; (coarse, unrefined, person, manners, life) → rozzo/a; (harsh, person, game) → violento/a; (neighbourhood) → poco raccomandabile, malfamato/a; (sea crossing, weather) → brutto/a
the sea is rough today → c'è mare grosso oggi
I don't want any rough stuff! (fam) → niente risse!
a rough customer (fam) → un duro
to have a rough time (of it) → passare un periodaccio
to give sb a rough time (of it) → rendere la vita dura a qn
it's rough on him → che sfortuna per lui
to feel rough (Brit) (fam) → sentirsi male
c. (calculation, figures) → approssimativo/a, approssimato/a; (plan) → sommario/a
rough work, rough draft, rough copy → brutta copia
rough sketch → schizzo
rough estimate → approssimazione f
at a rough guess or estimate → ad occhio e croce
he's a rough diamond → sotto quei modi un po' grezzi si nasconde un cuore d'oro
2. adv to play rough (Sport) → giocare pesante; (children) → fare dei giochi violenti
to sleep rough (Brit) → dormire all'addiaccio
to live rough → vivere in strada
3. n
a. (fam) (person) → duro
b. to take the rough with the smoothprendere le cose come vengono
c. (Golf) → erba alta, macchia
4. vt to rough it (fam) → far vita dura
rough out vt + adv (draft, plan) → fare un abbozzo di, abbozzare
rough up vt + adv (fam) to rough sb upmalmenare qn

rough

(raf) adjective
1. not smooth. Her skin felt rough.
2. uneven. a rough path.
3. harsh; unpleasant. a rough voice; She's had a rough time since her husband died.
4. noisy and violent. rough behaviour.
5. stormy. The sea was rough; rough weather.
6. not complete or exact; approximate. a rough drawing; a rough idea/estimate.
noun
1. a violent bully. a gang of roughs.
2. uneven or uncultivated ground on a golf course. I lost my ball in the rough.
ˈroughly adverb
ˈroughness noun
ˈroughage (-fidʒ) noun
substances in food, eg bran or fibre, which help digestion.
ˈroughen verb
to make or become rough. The sea roughened as the wind rose.
rough diamond
a person of fine character but rough manners.
ˌrough-and-ˈready adjective
1. not carefully made or finished, but good enough. a rough-and-ready meal.
2. (of people) friendly enough but without politeness etc.
ˌrough-and-ˈtumble noun
friendly fighting between children etc.
rough it
to live for a period of time without the comforts or conveniences of modern life. They roughed it in the jungles for two months.
rough out
to draw or explain roughly. I roughed out a diagram; He roughed out his plan.

rough

خَشِن, غَيْرُ لَطِيف hrubý brutal, grov grob, uneben τραχύς áspero, brusco karkea, kovakourainen brute, rugueux grub grossolano, rude 手荒な, 粗い 거친 ruw hardhendt, ru brutalny, szorstki áspero, bruto, rude грубый grov, hårdhänt รุนแรง, หยาบ kaba ráp, thô lỗ 粗糙的, 粗鲁的

rough

a. [surface, skin] áspero-a, escabroso-a; [character] rudo-a. grosero-a;
v.
to have a ___ timepasarla mal.

rough

adj (skin, etc.) áspero
References in classic literature ?
And Beth looked at her rough hands with a sigh that any one could hear that time.
Some of the bricks were missing and the sidewalk was rough and irregular.
As the canoe containing the men was paddled along, there floated down beside it what seemed to be a big, rough log.
Everywhere, as far as the eye could reach, there was nothing but rough, shaggy, red grass, most of it as tall as I.
He reached up for her big, rough straw hat that hung on a peg outside the door, and put it on her head.
Without ceremony, and with a rough hand, he twirled the supple Gamut around on his heel, and more than once affirmed that the Hurons had done themselves great credit in the fashion of his costume.
What had been the counter or "bar" of the saloon, gorgeous in white and gold, now sawn in two and divided, was set up on opposite sides of the room as separate dressing-tables, decorated with huge bunches of azaleas, that hid the rough earthenware bowls, and gave each table the appearance of a vestal altar.
Anon, there was an encounter, just at the door-step, betwixt two laboring men, as their rough voices denoted them to be.
The schoolmaster is generally a man of some importance in the female circle of a rural neighborhood; being considered a kind of idle, gentlemanlike personage, of vastly superior taste and accomplishments to the rough country swains, and, indeed, inferior in learning only to the parson.
I used to speculate-- but even this with a dim disconnectedness--as to how the rough future
just as you please; i'm sorry i cant spare ye a tablecloth for a mattress, and it's a plaguy rough board here --feeling of the knots and notches.
Sometimes we had rather rough play, for they would frequently bite and kick as well as gallop.