roughly


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rough
left: rough jade
right: polished jade

rough

 (rŭf)
adj. rough·er, rough·est
1.
a. Having a surface marked by irregularities, protuberances, or ridges; not smooth: planed the board so it was no longer rough.
b. Coarse or shaggy to the touch: a rough scratchy blanket.
2.
a. Difficult to travel over or through: the rough terrain of the highlands.
b. Characterized by violent motion; turbulent: rough waters.
c. Difficult to endure or live through, especially because of harsh or inclement weather: a rough winter.
d. Unpleasant or difficult: had a rough time during the exam.
3.
a. Characterized by or done with violence or forcefulness: a sport noted for rough play; a package that received rough handling.
b. Boisterous, disorderly, or given to violence: ran with a rough crowd.
c. Characterized by violence or crime: lives in a rough neighborhood.
d. Lacking polish or finesse: rough manners.
4. Harsh to the ear: a rough raspy sound.
5. Being in a natural state: rough diamonds.
6. Not perfected, completed, or fully detailed: a rough drawing; rough carpentry.
n.
1. The surface or part of something that is uneven or coarse: felt the rough of his chin.
2.
a. Rugged overgrown terrain.
b. Sports The area of a golf hole in which the grass is left unmowed or is cut to a length longer than that of the fairway.
3.
a. A disorderly, unrefined, or unfinished state.
b. A difficult or disagreeable aspect or condition of something: observed politics in the rough when working as an intern on Capitol Hill.
4. A person given to violent or disorderly behavior; a rowdy.
tr.v. roughed, rough·ing, roughs
1.
a. To treat roughly or with physical violence: roughed up his opponent.
b. Sports To treat (an opposing player) with unnecessary roughness, often in violation of the rules: was ejected from the game for roughing the passer.
2. To prepare or indicate in an unfinished form: rough out a house plan.
adv.
In a rough manner; roughly: The engine began to run rough and faltered.
Idiom:
rough it
To live without the usual comforts and conveniences: roughed it in a small hunting shack.

[Middle English, from Old English rūh.]

rough′er n.
rough′ly adv.
rough′ness n.

roughly

(ˈrʌflɪ)
adv
1. without being exact or fully authenticated; approximately: roughly half the candidates were successful.
2. in a clumsy, coarse, or violent manner: his captors did not treat him roughly.
3. in a crude or primitive manner: a slab of roughly hewn stone.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Adv.1.roughly - (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correctroughly - (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct; "lasted approximately an hour"; "in just about a minute"; "he's about 30 years old"; "I've had about all I can stand"; "we meet about once a month"; "some forty people came"; "weighs around a hundred pounds"; "roughly $3,000"; "holds 3 gallons, more or less"; "20 or so people were at the party"
2.roughly - with roughness or violence (`rough' is an informal variant for `roughly'); "he was pushed roughly aside"; "they treated him rough"
colloquialism - a colloquial expression; characteristic of spoken or written communication that seeks to imitate informal speech
3.roughly - with rough motion as over a rough surface; "ride rough"

roughly

adverb
1. forcefully, abruptly, violently, aggressively, forcibly A hand roughly pushed him aside.
2. approximately, about, around, close to, just about, more or less, in the region of, circa (used with dates), in the vicinity of, not far off, in the neighbourhood of a period of roughly 30 million years

roughly

adverb
Near to in quantity or amount:
Translations
بِخُشونَه، بصورةٍ تَقْريبيَّهبِقَسْوَة
hrubězhruba
cirkagrofthårdhændeti grove trækråt
karkeasti
grubo
hozzávetõlegesen
gróflega
およそ
대략
grobopribližno
ungefär
อย่างหยาบ
thô bạo

roughly

[ˈrʌflɪ] ADV
1. (= approximately) [equal] → aproximadamente, más o menos
he was roughly the same age/height as metenía aproximadamente or más o menos la misma edad/altura que yo
roughly similarmás o menos parecido
roughly translatedtraducido a grandes rasgos or de forma aproximada
2. (= generally) [describe, outline] → en líneas generales, más o menos
they fall roughly into two categoriesen términos generales se dividen en dos categorías
roughly speaking, it means an increase of 10%en líneas generales, supone un incremento del 10%
roughly speaking, it acts as a transformerviene a actuar más o menos como un transformador
roughly speaking, his job is that of an administratorsu trabajo es, por así decirlo, de administrador
3. (= not gently) [push] → bruscamente; [play] → de forma violenta; [speak, order] → con brusquedad
to treat sth/sb roughlytratar mal algo/tratar a algn con brusquedad
4. (= crudely) [constructed, built, carved] → toscamente
to sketch sth roughlyhacer un bosquejo de algo
5. (Culin) [chop] → en trozos grandes; [slice] → en rodajas grandes

roughly

[ˈrʌfli] adv
(= approximately) → à peu près
It weighs roughly 20 kilos → Ça pèse à peu près vingt kilos.
roughly speaking → en gros
(= violently) [handle, push, pull] → brutalement
(= harshly) [speak, answer] → durement
(= crudely) [make, cut, chop] → grossièrement

roughly

adv
(= not gently)grob, roh; playrau; speakgrob; answer, ordergrob, hart
(= crudely) make, sew, sketch, chop, slicegrob
(= approximately)ungefähr; roughly (speaking)grob gesagt; roughly halfungefähr die Hälfte; roughly equalungefähr gleich; roughly the sameungefähr dasselbe; roughly similarin etwa ähnlich; to be roughly similar to somethingeine grobe Ähnlichkeit mit etw besitzen; roughly comparablegrob vergleichbar; roughly translatedgrob übersetzt

roughly

[ˈrʌflɪ] adv
a. (not gently, YYY, push, handle) → brutalmente; (speak, order) → bruscamente
to treat sb/sth roughly → maltrattare qn/qc
b. (not finely, YYY, make, sew) → grossolanamente
to chop roughly → tagliare a pezzi grossi
to sketch sth roughly → fare uno schizzo di qc
c. (approximately) → grosso modo, approssimativamente, pressappoco
roughly speaking → grosso modo, ad occhio e croce
there were roughly 50 people → c'erano pressappoco 50 persone

rough

(raf) adjective
1. not smooth. Her skin felt rough.
2. uneven. a rough path.
3. harsh; unpleasant. a rough voice; She's had a rough time since her husband died.
4. noisy and violent. rough behaviour.
5. stormy. The sea was rough; rough weather.
6. not complete or exact; approximate. a rough drawing; a rough idea/estimate.
noun
1. a violent bully. a gang of roughs.
2. uneven or uncultivated ground on a golf course. I lost my ball in the rough.
ˈroughly adverb
ˈroughness noun
ˈroughage (-fidʒ) noun
substances in food, eg bran or fibre, which help digestion.
ˈroughen verb
to make or become rough. The sea roughened as the wind rose.
rough diamond
a person of fine character but rough manners.
ˌrough-and-ˈready adjective
1. not carefully made or finished, but good enough. a rough-and-ready meal.
2. (of people) friendly enough but without politeness etc.
ˌrough-and-ˈtumble noun
friendly fighting between children etc.
rough it
to live for a period of time without the comforts or conveniences of modern life. They roughed it in the jungles for two months.
rough out
to draw or explain roughly. I roughed out a diagram; He roughed out his plan.

roughly

بِقَسْوَة zhruba hårdhændet ungefähr βίαια aproximadamente karkeasti approximativement grubo pressappoco およそ 대략 ruw omtrent z grubsza bruscamente грубо ungefär อย่างหยาบ kabaca thô bạo 粗暴地
References in classic literature ?
To sketch my meaning roughly, examples of substance are 'man' or 'the horse', of quantity, such terms as 'two cubits long' or 'three cubits long', of quality, such attributes as 'white', 'grammatical'.
The husband, who knew that it had neither rained nor thundered in the night, was convinced that the parrot was not speaking the truth, so he took him out of the cage and threw him so roughly on the ground that he killed him.
And to define the matter roughly, we may say that the proper magnitude is comprised within such limits, that the sequence of events, according to the law of probability or necessity, will admit of a change from bad fortune to good, or from good fortune to bad.
I can't live with myself any longer," he answered roughly.
I believe I will try it myself," said the Woodman, and shouldering his axe, he marched up to the first tree that had handled the Scarecrow so roughly.
That sort of thing makes me sick," he said roughly.
The streets are roughly and badly paved with stone, and are tolerably crooked--enough so to make each street appear to close together constantly and come to an end about a hundred yards ahead of a pilgrim as long as he chooses to walk in it.
As to the Males of every class, it may be roughly said that the length of an adult's sides, when added together, is two feet or a little more.
He entirely omitted the usual formal salutation as we entered the presence of the jeddak, and as he pushed me roughly before the ruler he exclaimed in a loud and menacing voice.
Captain Winters could rub his ears, shake hands with his, scratch his back, and even roughly catch him by the jowls.
They're not here," she said, shutting the drawer; but from that action he saw he had guessed right, and roughly pushing away her hand, he quickly snatched a portfolio in which he knew she used to put her most important papers.
The officers, who did not understand Don Quixote's mode of speaking, and found themselves roughly handled by Don Fernando, Cardenio, and their companions, were not to be appeased; the barber was, however, for both his beard and his pack-saddle were the worse for the struggle; Sancho like a good servant obeyed the slightest word of his master; while the four servants of Don Luis kept quiet when they saw how little they gained by not being so.