roughness


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rough
left: rough jade
right: polished jade

rough

 (rŭf)
adj. rough·er, rough·est
1.
a. Having a surface marked by irregularities, protuberances, or ridges; not smooth: planed the board so it was no longer rough.
b. Coarse or shaggy to the touch: a rough scratchy blanket.
2.
a. Difficult to travel over or through: the rough terrain of the highlands.
b. Characterized by violent motion; turbulent: rough waters.
c. Difficult to endure or live through, especially because of harsh or inclement weather: a rough winter.
d. Unpleasant or difficult: had a rough time during the exam.
3.
a. Characterized by or done with violence or forcefulness: a sport noted for rough play; a package that received rough handling.
b. Boisterous, disorderly, or given to violence: ran with a rough crowd.
c. Characterized by violence or crime: lives in a rough neighborhood.
d. Lacking polish or finesse: rough manners.
4. Harsh to the ear: a rough raspy sound.
5. Being in a natural state: rough diamonds.
6. Not perfected, completed, or fully detailed: a rough drawing; rough carpentry.
n.
1. The surface or part of something that is uneven or coarse: felt the rough of his chin.
2.
a. Rugged overgrown terrain.
b. Sports The area of a golf hole in which the grass is left unmowed or is cut to a length longer than that of the fairway.
3.
a. A disorderly, unrefined, or unfinished state.
b. A difficult or disagreeable aspect or condition of something: observed politics in the rough when working as an intern on Capitol Hill.
4. A person given to violent or disorderly behavior; a rowdy.
tr.v. roughed, rough·ing, roughs
1.
a. To treat roughly or with physical violence: roughed up his opponent.
b. Sports To treat (an opposing player) with unnecessary roughness, often in violation of the rules: was ejected from the game for roughing the passer.
2. To prepare or indicate in an unfinished form: rough out a house plan.
adv.
In a rough manner; roughly: The engine began to run rough and faltered.
Idiom:
rough it
To live without the usual comforts and conveniences: roughed it in a small hunting shack.

[Middle English, from Old English rūh.]

rough′er n.
rough′ly adv.
rough′ness n.
ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend:
Noun1.roughness - a texture of a surface or edge that is not smooth but is irregular and unevenroughness - a texture of a surface or edge that is not smooth but is irregular and uneven
texture - the feel of a surface or a fabric; "the wall had a smooth texture"
scaliness - the property of being scaly
nubbiness, tweediness, coarseness - looseness or roughness in texture (as of cloth)
slub, burl, knot - soft lump or unevenness in a yarn; either an imperfection or created by design
abrasiveness, harshness, scratchiness - the roughness of a substance that causes abrasions
graininess, granularity, coarseness - the quality of being composed of relatively large particles
shagginess - roughness of nap produced by long woolly hairs
bumpiness - the texture of a surface that has many bumps
bristliness, prickliness, spininess, thorniness - the quality of being covered with prickly thorns or spines
smoothness - a texture without roughness; smooth to the touch; "admiring the slim smoothness of her thighs"; "some artists prefer the smoothness of a board"
2.roughness - the quality of being unpleasant (harsh or rough or grating) to the senses
unpleasantness - the quality of giving displeasure; "the recent unpleasantness of the weather"
gruffness, hoarseness, huskiness - a throaty harshness
3.roughness - an unpolished unrefined quality; "the crudeness of frontier dwellings depressed her"
inelegance - the quality of lacking refinement and good taste
4.roughness - used of the sea during inclement or stormy weatherroughness - used of the sea during inclement or stormy weather
storminess - the state of being stormy; "he dreaded the storminess of the North Atlantic in winter"
5.roughness - rowdy behavior
disorder - a disturbance of the peace or of public order
6.roughness - the formation of small pits in a surface as a consequence of corrosion
corroding, corrosion, erosion - erosion by chemical action
7.roughness - harsh or severe speech or behavior; "men associate the roughness of nonstandard working-class speech with masculinity"; "the roughness of her voice was a signal to keep quiet"
intensification - action that makes something stronger or more extreme

roughness

noun
Lack of smoothness or regularity:
Translations
خُشونَه
hrubost
ruhed
grófleiki

roughness

[ˈrʌfnɪs] N [of hands, surface] → aspereza f; [of sea] → agitación f, encrespamiento m; [of road] → desigualdad f; [of person] (= brusqueness) → brusquedad f; (= crudeness) → tosquedad f; (= violence) → violencia f

roughness

[ˈrʌfnɪs] n
[cloth, skin,] → rudesse f; [ground, track, surface] → rugosité f
(= coarseness) [person, manner] → rudesse f
(= violence) [person, game, treatment] → brutalité f

roughness

n
(= unevenness, of ground, path, road) → Unebenheit f; (of surface, skin, hands, cloth)Rauheit f
(= harshness, of sound) → Härte f; (of voice, tone)Rauheit f; (of wine)saurer Geschmack; (of words)Grobheit f
(= coarseness, of person) → Ungehobeltheit f; (of manners, speech)Grobheit f, → Rohheit f
(= violence, of person) → Grobheit f, → Rohheit f; (of treatment)Grobheit f, → Härte f; (of children’s game)Wildheit f; (of match, sport, work)Härte f; (of neighbourhood, manners, pub)Rauheit f

roughness

[ˈrʌfnɪs] n (of hands, surface) → ruvidità, ruvidezza; (of person, abruptness) → modi mpl bruschi; (harshness) → durezza, brutalità; (of sea) → violenza; (of road) → cattive condizioni fpl; (of terrain) → asprezza

rough

(raf) adjective
1. not smooth. Her skin felt rough.
2. uneven. a rough path.
3. harsh; unpleasant. a rough voice; She's had a rough time since her husband died.
4. noisy and violent. rough behaviour.
5. stormy. The sea was rough; rough weather.
6. not complete or exact; approximate. a rough drawing; a rough idea/estimate.
noun
1. a violent bully. a gang of roughs.
2. uneven or uncultivated ground on a golf course. I lost my ball in the rough.
ˈroughly adverb
ˈroughness noun
ˈroughage (-fidʒ) noun
substances in food, eg bran or fibre, which help digestion.
ˈroughen verb
to make or become rough. The sea roughened as the wind rose.
rough diamond
a person of fine character but rough manners.
ˌrough-and-ˈready adjective
1. not carefully made or finished, but good enough. a rough-and-ready meal.
2. (of people) friendly enough but without politeness etc.
ˌrough-and-ˈtumble noun
friendly fighting between children etc.
rough it
to live for a period of time without the comforts or conveniences of modern life. They roughed it in the jungles for two months.
rough out
to draw or explain roughly. I roughed out a diagram; He roughed out his plan.

roughness

n aspereza
References in classic literature ?
As I remember them, what unprotected faces they were; their very roughness and violence made them defenceless.
He was always ready for either a fight or a frolic; but had more mischief than ill-will in his composition; and with all his overbearing roughness, there was a strong dash of waggish good humor at bottom.
I only knew that at the end of, I suppose, a quarter of an hour, an odorous dampness and roughness, chilling and piercing my trouble, had made me understand that I must have thrown myself, on my face, on the ground and given way to a wildness of grief.
It was clear that the roughness of the ground had very much lessened Lizzie's speed, and there seemed a chance that we might overtake her.
There was no opportunity for conversation, on account of the roughness of the way and the noise of the wheels.
Living much out of doors, in the sun and wind, will no doubt produce a certain roughness of character--will cause a thicker cuticle to grow over some of the finer qualities of our nature, as on the face and hands, or as severe manual labor robs the hands of some of their delicacy of touch.
She smoothed it out carefully, pinched up the white ruffle at the neck, and laid it away in a drawer with an extra little sob at the roughness of life.
If even this stranger had smiled and been good-humoured to me when I addressed him; if he had put off my offer of assistance gaily and with thanks, I should have gone on my way and not felt any vocation to renew inquiries: but the frown, the roughness of the traveller, set me at my ease: I retained my station when he waved to me to go, and announced -
A half- civilised ferocity lurked yet in the depressed brows and eyes full of black fire, but it was subdued; and his manner was even dignified: quite divested of roughness, though stern for grace.
Don't tell your husband till I am gone," he said, with a roughness quite new in his sister's experience of him.
There was little roughness in the sport, and much playfulness.
Before I could obey, however, the tinker seized the handkerchief out of my hand with a roughness that threw me away like a feather, and putting it loosely round his own neck, turned upon the woman with an oath, and knocked her down.